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Last feed update: Wednesday May 18th, 2022 05:30:20 AM

New material can ‘capture toxic pollutants from air’

Wednesday May 18th, 2022 01:04:29 AM
A new material is capable of capturing trace amounts of benzene, a toxic pollutant, from the air and crucially use less energy than existing materials to do so.

Study gives animal testing alternatives a confidence boost

Wednesday May 18th, 2022 01:04:26 AM
As part of a government effort to reduce animal testing, researchers have worked to produce a new protocol for screening skin allergens. The method is potentially cheaper and faster than animal testing, while maintaining a similar performance.

Timing of heart surgery crucial, research shows

Wednesday May 18th, 2022 01:04:14 AM
The timing of valve replacement heart surgery is crucial, and should be performed earlier than previously thought for people with aortic stenosis, a new study shows. The condition is one of the most common and serious valve disease problems, caused by a narrowing of the aortic valve opening.

Seafloor animal cued to settle, transformed by a bacterial compound

Wednesday May 18th, 2022 01:04:12 AM
A new study has revealed that a large, complex molecule, called lipopolysaccharide, produced by bacteria is responsible for inducing larval marine tubeworms, Hydroides elegans, to settle to the seafloor and begin the complex processes of metamorphosis.

Automated platform for plasmid production

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 09:02:55 PM
Researchers have developed PlasmidMaker, a versatile automated platform for plasmid design & construction. These circular DNA molecules are used by scientists to introduce new genes into a target organism, and have extensive use in basic and applied biology. In particular, they have applications in the large-scale production of bioproducts.

Chemists skew the odds to prevent cancer

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 09:02:52 PM
A theoretical framework shows how to increase the odds of identifying cancer-causing mutations before tumors take hold. Researchers demonstrate that only a few energetically favorable pathways are likely to lead to cancer.

New protein structures to aid rational drug design

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 09:02:49 PM
In a major advance for rational drug design, chemists have described several protein structures of a crucial player in cellular processes. The advance could bring new ideas for treatments of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, AIDS, cancer and others.

Algorithms empower metalens design

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 08:05:11 PM
Researchers have developed a new method for designing large-scale metasurfaces that uses techniques of machine intelligence to generate designs automatically. The method will enable new metasurface designs that can make an impact on virtual or augmented reality, self-driving cars, and machine vision for embarked systems and satellites.

If you take several medications, ‘polypharmacy’ is a word to know

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 07:46:14 PM
Taking multiple prescription drugs and supplements can be fraught with risk, a new study suggests — but it’s hard for many people to part with their medications.

First animals developed complex ecosystems before the Cambrian explosion

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 07:18:29 PM
Early animals formed complex ecological communities more than 550 million years ago, setting the evolutionary stage for the Cambrian explosion, according to a new study.

mRNA vaccines like Pfizer and Moderna fare better against COVID-19 variants of concern

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 07:18:26 PM
A comparison of four COVID-19 vaccinations shows that messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines — Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna — perform better against the World Health Organization’s variants of concern (VOCs) than viral vector vaccines — AstraZeneca and J&J/Janssen. Although they all effectively prevent severe disease by VOCs, the research suggests that people receiving a viral vector vaccine are more vulnerable to infection by new variants.

Concussion symptoms in children may have multiple underlying causes

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 07:18:23 PM
Different types of brain damage caused by a concussion may lead to similar symptoms in children, according to new research. A new way of studying concussions could help develop future treatments.

Type-I interferon stops immune system ‘going rogue’ during viral infections

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 07:18:20 PM
Researchers have discovered that Type I interferon (IFN) plays a key role in helping the immune system effectively target viruses, while stopping white blood cells from ‘going rogue’ and attacking the body’s own organs. This opens the way to potential new treatments that can save many lives.

Aerodynamics of perching birds could inform aircraft design

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 05:07:36 PM
To uncover the mystery behind the differences in motion, a team of researchers studied the aerodynamics of bird perching maneuvers and their implications for aircraft design.

Protein linked to intellectual disability has complex role

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:23:00 PM
Researchers have identified a previously unknown function for the fragile X protein, the loss of which is the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The researchers showed that the protein modulates how neurons in the brain’s memory center process information, a central part of learning and memory.

Scientists nail down ‘destination’ for protein that delivers zinc

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:22:57 PM
New research describes a ‘chaperone’ protein that delivers zinc, a trace element essential for survival in all living things, to where it’s needed. The chaperone could be especially important when access to zinc is limited — for example in nutrient deficient diets and for growing crops on depleted soils.

Major infrared breakthrough could lead to solar power at night

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:22:46 PM
Based on similar technology to night-vision goggles, researchers have developed a device that can generate electricity from thermal radiation.

How is it possible to remember selfless experiences?

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:22:36 PM
People who practice intensive meditation report memories of states in which their sense of self dissolves. Is this at all possible?

Motivation for sports and school go hand in hand for adolescent athletes

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:22:34 PM
Adolescent athletes with high motivation for school also have high motivation for sports. Male students tend to be less interested in school than their female peers, a new study shows.

Early warning system forecasts who needs critical care for COVID-19

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:22:26 PM
An algorithm can accurately predict which hospitalized patients are at the highest risk of death and require critical care, regardless of immune protection status and virus variant.

ATP from sensory neuron-interneuron crosstalk is key to spreading inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:22:16 PM
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secreted from sensory neuron-interneuron crosstalk is key to the spreading of inflammation across joints, acting as a neurotransmitter and inflammation enhancer.

New silicon nanowires can really take the heat

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:22:13 PM
A research team has demonstrated an ultrathin silicon nanowire that conducts heat 150% more efficiently than conventional materials used in advanced chip technologies. The device could enable smaller, faster, energy-efficient microelectronics.

Rocket engine exhaust pollution extends high into Earth’s atmosphere

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:22:10 PM
Researchers assessed the potential impact of a rocket launch on atmospheric pollution by investigating the heat and mass transfer and rapid mixing of the combustion byproducts. The team modeled the exhaust gases and developing plume at several altitudes along a typical trajectory of a standard present-day rocket. They did this as a prototypical example of a two-stage rocket to transport people and payloads into Earth’s orbit and beyond and found the impact on the atmosphere locally and momentarily in the mesosphere can be significant.

Improved wind forecasts save consumers millions in energy costs

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:22:08 PM
Scientists determined that by increasing the accuracy of weather forecasts over the last decade, consumers netted at least $384 million in energy savings. The researchers based their predictions on NOAA’s High Resolution Rapid Refresh model, which provides daily weather forecasts for every part of the U.S. These include wind speed and direction data, which utilities can use to gauge how much energy their turbines will produce.

Desktop air curtain system prevents spread of COVID-19 in hospital settings

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:22:03 PM
Researchers have developed a desktop air curtain system that blocks all incoming aerosol particles. An air curtain, or air door, is a fan-powered ventilation system that creates an air seal over an entryway, but one challenge in developing smaller air curtains is fully blocking emitted aerosol particles over time because it is difficult to maintain the air wall over a long distance.

Phage therapy: A model to predict its efficacy against pathogenic bacteria

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 03:17:39 PM
Antibiotic resistance represents a major public health challenge, associated with a high mortality rate. While bacteriophages — viruses that kill bacteria — could be a solution for fighting antibiotic-resistant pathogens, various obstacles stand in the way of their clinical development. To overcome them, researchers have developed a model to better predict the efficacy of phage therapy and possibly develop more robust clinical trials.

U.S. study analyzing tooth survival after root canal in general population

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:48:50 PM
Oral health is a public health issue that significantly affects people’s overall health. A ground-breaking study of root canal longevity using electronic dental record data from 46,000 root canal patients treated in community dental practices found geographic and procedure disparities, providing real-world insight that can be used to inform dental practice.

The numbers don’t lie: Australia is failing at maths and we need to find a new formula to arrest the decline

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:48:42 PM
Australia has suffered a significant drop in teenage maths proficiency in the past 20 years — sliding from 11th in the OECD rankings to 29th place out of 38 countries, prompting widespread debate over potential curriculum changes. One researcher says hand gestures could stop the slide.

Different subtypes defined in small cell lung cancer

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:48:34 PM
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a malignant disease associated with a particularly high mortality rate. According to a new multicenter study, SCLC can be divided into several subgroups in terms of clinical behavior. These subtypes respond differently to chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs. This opens up possibilities for personalized treatment for this type of cancer as well.

Change of temperature causes whole body reprogramming

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:48:31 PM
Human beings, like most organisms, are constantly exposed to alternating colder or warmer temperatures. These environmental variations cause striking metabolic effects and require constant adaptations. While some of these adaptations confer certain beneficial effects on health, the impact of cold and warmth on the various organs in a whole-body context was not known.

Loops for micro-organisms

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:48:28 PM
The capabilities of complex microbial communities are used for numerous biotechnological processes. This requires special compositions of the microbial communities. However, these are often unstable and susceptible to disruption. Researchers have now developed a ‘mass transfer method with a loop’ that can stabilize microbial communities in the long term.

Early Earth: Tungsten isotopes in seawater provide insights into the co-evolution of Earth’s mantle and continents

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:48:13 PM
Scientists have demonstrated that a new geochemical archive — 182Tungsten in banded iron formations — can be used to simultaneously trace both the evolution of the Earth’s mantle and continents throughout Earth’s history. This offers new opportunities to better understand the Precambrian Earth in the future.

Chimpanzees combine calls to form numerous vocal sequences

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:48:10 PM
Compared to the complex use of human language, the way animals communicate with each other appears quite simple. How our language evolved from such a simple system, remains unclear. A group of researchers has now recorded thousands of vocalizations from wild chimpanzees in Taï, Ivory Coast. They found that the animals produced hundreds of different vocal sequences containing up to ten different call types. The order of calls in these sequences followed some rules, and calls were associated with each other in a structured manner. The researchers will now investigate if this structure may constitute a step towards human syntax and if chimpanzees use these sequences to communicate a wider range of meanings in their complex social environment.

Magnetic nanoparticles in biological vehicles individually characterized for the first time

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:48:08 PM
Magnetic nanostructures are promising tools for medical applications. Incorporated into biological structures, they can be steered via external magnetic fields inside the body to release drugs or to destroy cancer cells. However, until now, only average information on the magnetic properties of those nanoparticles could be obtained, thus limiting their successful implementations in therapies. Now a team has conceived and tested a new method to assess the characteristic parameters of every single magnetic nanoparticle.

Ecological functions of streams and rivers severely affected globally

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:48:02 PM
Agriculture, loss of habitat or wastewater effluents — human stressors negatively impact biodiversity in streams and rivers. Very little is known yet about the extent to which their capacity for self-purification and other essential ecosystem services are also impacted. An international research team has synthesized the globally available research on this topic in a meta-analysis. This study provides new initiatives for improved water management.

New light on organic solar cells

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 12:30:54 PM
Efficient and environmentally friendly solar cells are required for a transition to a fossil-free energy supply. Researchers at have now mapped how energy flows in organic solar cells, something that previously had been unknown.

New guideline refines care for brain bleeds: Compression socks, some meds not effective, study suggests

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 12:30:51 PM
Several in-hospital treatments and post-discharge therapies for people who have had an intracerebral hemorrhage, or a bleeding stroke, are not as effective as health care professionals once thought. Compression socks or stockings, anti-seizure medicines and steroid treatment are among treatments with uncertain effectiveness. Studies show that minimally invasive surgical procedures may be a useful addition to treating some bleeding strokes.

Deep ocean warming as climate changes

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 12:30:48 PM
Much of the ‘excess heat’ stored in the subtropical North Atlantic is in the deep ocean (below 700m), new research suggests.

For large bone injuries, it’s Sonic hedgehog to the rescue

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 12:30:44 PM
A new study presents intriguing evidence that large bone injuries might trigger a repair strategy in adults that recapitulates elements of skeletal formation in utero. Key to this repair strategy is a gene called Sonic hedgehog. In this study, researchers took a close look at how mice are able to regrow large sections of missing rib — an ability they share with humans, and one of the most impressive examples of bone regeneration in mammals. To their surprise, the scientists observed an increase in the activity of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which plays an important role in skeletal formation in embryos, but hasn’t previously been linked to injury repair in adults.

Validation brings new predictive capability to global megafire smoke impacts

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 12:30:29 PM
New research modeling smoke from two recent megafires sets the stage for better forecasting of how emissions from these global-scale events will behave and impact temperatures. As huge wildfires become more common under climate change, increased attention has focused on the intensity and duration of their emissions, which rival those of some volcano eruptions.

New method melds data to make a 3-D map of cells’ activities

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:31:58 AM
Engineers are using a cell’s surroundings to help biologists make more sense of gene expression information. Their new system could open the door to identifying rare cell types and choosing cancer treatment options with new precision.

Mars’ emitted energy and seasonal energy imbalance

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:31:48 AM
Seasonal imbalance between the solar energy absorbed and released by the planet Mars could be a cause of the Red Planet’s dust storms, according to new research. Understanding how the system works on Mars could help scientists predict how climate change could affect Earth.

Scientists identify characteristics to better define long COVID

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:31:43 AM
Researchers have identified characteristics of people with long COVID and those likely to have it. Scientists used machine learning techniques to analyze an unprecedented collection of electronic health records (EHRs) available for COVID-19 research to better identify who has long COVID.

Vaccinia virus pulls together a makeshift tool to repair its DNA, exposing a vulnerability that could be targeted

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:31:39 AM
The vaccinia virus uses its own machinery and not that of the cell it infects to repair ultraviolet radiation-caused damage to its DNA, according to new research. The virus repurposes an enzyme it uses for copying its DNA to repair the damage. Blocking that enzyme disrupts both the copying and repairing of viral DNA, resulting in a dramatic reduction in new virions.

Ultra-powerful brain scanners offer hope for treating cognitive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease

Tuesday May 17th, 2022 01:31:34 AM
Ultra-powerful 7T MRI scanners could be used to help identify those patients with Parkinson’s disease and similar conditions most likely to benefit from new treatments for previously-untreatable symptoms, say scientists.

New theory promises to reshape how we think about polymer superstructures

Monday May 16th, 2022 08:36:16 PM
Polymer scientists recently announced that they have solved a longstanding mystery surrounding a nanoscale structure, formed by collections of molecules, called a double-gyroid. This shape is one of the most desirable for materials scientists, and has a wide range of applications; but, until now, a predictable understanding of how these shapes form has eluded researchers.

Shaping the future of light through reconfigurable metasurfaces

Monday May 16th, 2022 07:15:01 PM
Harnessing the power of ‘phase-change’ materials, researchers have demonstrated how reconfigurable metasurfaces — artificial materials with extraordinary optical properties — are crucial to the future of nanotechnology.

Stimulating brain circuits promotes neuron growth in adulthood, improving cognition and mood

Monday May 16th, 2022 07:02:17 PM
Targeting specific brain cells modulated memory retrieval and altered anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Essentially, scientists boosted the electrical activity between cells in the hypothalamus and the hippocampus to create new neurons — an important process called neurogenesis.

Scientists provide more than 50K camera trap images for massive study on Amazon wildlife

Monday May 16th, 2022 07:02:11 PM
Scientists working in the vast Amazon Basin have contributed more than 57,000 camera trap images for a new study.

Boost in nerve-growth protein helps explain why running supports brain health

Monday May 16th, 2022 05:50:13 PM
Exercise increases levels of a chemical involved in brain cell growth, which bolsters the release of the ‘feel good’ hormone dopamine, a new study shows. Dopamine is known to play a key role in movement, motivation, and learning. Experts have long understood that regular running raises dopamine activity in the brain and may protect nerve cells from damage. In addition, past research has tied exercise-driven boosts in the dopamine-triggering chemical called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and in dopamine levels to improvements in learning and memory. However, the precise way these three factors interact has until now remained unclear.

Assessing the impact of loss mechanisms in solar cell candidate

Monday May 16th, 2022 04:40:53 PM
The superconductor antimony sulfide selenide is a potential candidate for solar materials, but this depends on understanding how to boost its efficiency.

Studying the pseudogap in superconducting cuprate materials

Monday May 16th, 2022 04:40:50 PM
Despite being vital to the study of superconductivity in cuprate materials the physical origins of the pseudogap remain a mystery.

The way of water: Making advanced electronics with H2O

Monday May 16th, 2022 04:40:47 PM
The market for expensive fabrication methods in electronics manufacturing could soon dry up after a high-performance material was created via solution processing.

New micro device injects a boost to IVF success

Monday May 16th, 2022 04:40:40 PM
A research team has delivered a ground-breaking new micro-device to streamline the only fertility treatment procedure available for men with low sperm counts.

Policymakers underestimate methane’s climate and air quality impacts

Monday May 16th, 2022 04:40:38 PM
Methane emissions have been increasing rapidly in recent years, contributing significantly to global warming. Despite this, methane is not adequately treated within existing national and international governance frameworks. Researchers now highlight the urgent need for action in a new study.

Seeing molecules inside a nanometer-sized ‘sardine can’

Monday May 16th, 2022 04:40:31 PM
Researchers have successfully developed a new technique allowing them to observe gas molecules packing into metal-organic frameworks (MOF) using infrared spectroscopy. Their innovation was to measure polarized light absorption of guest molecules in a MOF film to deduce molecule alignment using this common piece of lab equipment. This method is the first to show guest alignment and does so in real-time, while using an accessible and easily adoptable experimental setup.

Electronic skin: Physicist develops multisensory hybrid material

Monday May 16th, 2022 04:40:27 PM
Recently developed ‘smart skin’ is very similar to human skin. It senses pressure, humidity and temperature simultaneously and produces electronic signals. More sensitive robots or more intelligent prostheses are thus conceivable.

Heavy metal pollution can increase antibiotic resistance in rivers

Monday May 16th, 2022 04:40:23 PM
Scientists have shown that elevated heavy metal levels in rivers can lead to higher levels of antibiotic resistance.

The European drought event from 2018 to 2020 was the most intense in over 250 years

Monday May 16th, 2022 04:40:21 PM
These were days, months and years that many will come to remember: the drought from 2018 to 2020. An international team of researchers has succeeded in categorizing the historical dimensions of this event. Based on their findings, no drought covering such a large area for an extended period and coinciding with warmer temperature has occurred in Europe since the middle of the 18th century. The years from 2018 to 2020 thus represent a new benchmark for droughts. Because such an unprecedented event is likely to occur more frequently in the future, the scientists urgently recommend the development and implementation of suitable, regionally adapted drought prevention measures.

Study provides long-term look at ways to control wildfire in sagebrush steppe ecosystem

Monday May 16th, 2022 04:40:15 PM
New research provides the first long-term study of methods to control the spread of wildfire in the sagebrush steppe ecosystem that dominates parts of the western United States.

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