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Science Daily is is an online source for topical science articles active since 1995. It features articles on a wide variety of science topics including: astronomy, exoplanets, computer science, nanotechnology, medicine, psychology, biology, geology, climate, space, physics, mathematics, chemistry, archeology, paleontology, and others.

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Last feed update: Wednesday August 15th, 2018 08:41:09 AM

Chemicals found in vegetables prevent colon cancer in mice

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 09:36:48 PM
Chemicals produced by vegetables such as kale, cabbage and broccoli could help to maintain a healthy gut and prevent colon cancer, a new study shows.

Zombie gene protects against cancer -- in elephants

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 09:36:43 PM
LIF6, a dead gene that came back to life, prevents cancer by killing cells with DNA damage.

Snake fungal disease alters skin microbiome in eastern Massasaugas

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 07:33:30 PM
In the first study of its kind, researchers characterized the skin microbiome of a population of free-ranging snakes to begin to understand how the animals' environmental microbial community may promote disease resistance as well as how it may be disrupted by infection.

Early opaque universe linked to galaxy scarcity

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 07:09:51 PM
A team of astronomers has made a surprising discovery: 12.5 billion years ago, the most opaque place in the universe contained relatively little matter.

Origins and spread of Eurasian fruits traced to the ancient Silk Road

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 06:05:21 PM
Studies of ancient plant remains from a medieval archaeological site in the Pamir Mountains of Uzbekistan have shown that fruits, such as apples, peaches, apricots, and melons, were cultivated in the foothills of Inner Asia. The archaeobotanical study is among the first systematic analyses of medieval agricultural crops in the heart of the ancient Silk Road.

Magnetic gene in fish may someday help those with epilepsy, Parkinson's

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 06:05:15 PM
An aquarium fish that senses the Earth's magnetic field as it swims could help unlock how the human brain works and how diseases such as Parkinson's and other neurological disorders function. Scientists have discovered a navigational gene in glass catfish called the electromagnetic-perceptive gene, or EPG, that responds to certain magnetic waves. They've already developed a way to use it to control movement in mice.

Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 06:05:07 PM
Scientists have presented research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as 'whistlers' -- very low frequency packets of radio waves that race along magnetic field lines. The study provides new insights into the nature of whistlers and space plasmas and could one day aid in the development of practical plasma technologies with magnetic fields, including spacecraft thrusters that use charged particles as fuel.

Medicaid expansion states see rise in coverage for low income adults with substance use disorders

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:42:22 PM
The percentage of low-income Americans with substance use disorders who were uninsured declined more sharply in states that chose to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act versus states that did not, according to a new study. The percentage of low-income residents with substance use disorders without coverage decreased from 34 percent in 2013 to 20 percent in 2015 within states that had implemented Medicaid expansion -- or expansion states -- compared to 45 percent to 39 percent in non-expansion states.

New approach to treating chronic itch

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:42:15 PM
Two receptors in the spinal cord and the right experimental drug: Researchers have discovered a new approach that suppresses itch. In a series of experiments in mice and dogs they successfully alleviated different forms of acute as well as chronic itch. For the latter, current treatment options are very limited.

How MERS Coronavirus evolves to infect different species

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:42:11 PM
New research shows how MERS-CoV can adapt to infect cells of a new species, which suggests that other coronaviruses might be able to do the same.

Effects of climate warming seen in tallgrass prairie ecosystem

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:42:08 PM
Ecologists have completed a new study on the effects of climate warming on soil microbes in a long-term climate change experiment at a tallgrass prairie ecosystem. The new study shows that climate warming will affect microbial communities in the future, and future community states will be more predictable under warmed climate. Eventually, microbial communities will produce different functions and feedbacks to climate warming.

Models give synthetic biologists a head start

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:42:07 PM
Researchers have developed mathematical models to predict the performance of multi-input synthetic biological circuits that can be used to engineer bacteria and other organisms to regulate cellular systems or perform functions they wouldn't in nature. Applications include biological sensing, chemical production and therapeutics such as probiotics to alter gut bacteria.

Potential guidance for gastric cancer treatment

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:42:04 PM
Researchers have discovered that gastric cancer tissue samples bearing mutation of a specific gene, MUC16, too are associated with higher tumor mutation loads. Also known as tumor mutation burdens, measurement of high genetic mutation rates among cancerous versus healthy tissue has increasingly been shown to correlate with effective response rates to immunotherapy. The knowledge could bode positively for patients with the biomarker present.

Security gaps identified in Internet protocol 'IPsec'

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:42:01 PM
Researchers have demonstrated that the Internet protocol 'IPsec' is vulnerable to attacks. The Internet Key Exchange protocol 'IKEv1', which is part of the protocol family, has vulnerabilities that enable potential attackers to interfere with the communication process and intercept specific information.

Natural refrigerant replacements could reduce energy costs and conserve the environment

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:41:59 PM
The 1987 Montreal Protocol and the 1997 Kyoto Protocol called for countries around the world to phase out substances that deplete the ozone layer, but many HVAC systems still use synthetic refrigerants that violate those international agreements and inflict environmental damage. Recently, researchers investigated how natural refrigerants could be used in geothermal heat pumps to reduce energy consumption and operating costs.

Inching closer to a soft spot in isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:41:56 PM
Researchers comparing clonal strains of the mycobacteria that cause TB, before and after they developed resistance to a first-line drug, found that a single genetic change may not always have identical effects on bacterial fitness.

Light-engineered bacterial shapes could hold key to future labs-on-a-chip

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:41:55 PM
Scientists have used light patterns to control the swimming speed of bacteria and direct them to form different shapes.

Cancer-fighting drugs also help plants fight disease

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:41:50 PM
Cancer-fighting drugs used on humans can help plants fight disease as well. That discovery, by plant pathologists, could help scientists develop new pathways for plants to battle infection.

Diving robots find Antarctic winter seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:41:47 PM
A new study uses data gathered by floating drones in the Southern Ocean over past winters to learn how much carbon dioxide is transferred by the surrounding seas. Results show that in winter the open water nearest the sea ice surrounding Antarctica releases significantly more carbon dioxide than previously believed.

Deaths from resident-to-resident incidents in dementia offers insights to inform policy

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:41:44 PM
Analyzing the incidents between residents in dementia in long-term care homes may hold the key to reducing future fatalities among this vulnerable population, according to a new research.

Workplace bias differs for single versus married parents

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 05:41:43 PM
Single moms aren't penalized at work in the same way married mothers are, new University of Arizona research suggests. At the same time, single dads don't benefit in the workplace the way that married fathers do.

Drug repurposing study sheds light on heart disease risk

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:43:52 PM
A team led by researchers has developed a computational technique to reveal the unknown side effects -- both good and bad -- of hundreds of drugs. That knowledge could help pharmacologists discover new indications for drugs already on the market and repurpose them for other disorders. Using their unique method, the researchers discovered that two drugs commonly prescribed for non-coronary disorders may affect heart disease risk.

Ecology of investors in financial markets

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:32:54 PM
Researchers studied the similarity of investment decisions in the financial market and how the investment strategies used by the investors influence the volatility of the markets by using an exceptionally large set of empirical data. The results help in understanding the operation of financial markets and shed light on the connection of earlier theories to the actual stock market.

Weight loss: Surprising scale of health benefits for biggest losers

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:32:51 PM
When it comes to shedding pounds, it pays to think big, according to new research.

Effectively expressing empathy to improve ICU care

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:32:46 PM
Physicians express empathy frequently to families in the pediatric intensive care unit, but more than one-third of empathetic statements are buried by medical jargon that reduces their effectiveness.

Eight and nine-year-olds experience poor body image as hormone levels rise

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:15:15 PM
Children as young as eight are vulnerable to poor body image as hormone levels rise with the onset of puberty, a new study has found. The study based on data from more than 1,100 eight- to nine-year-olds indicates a need for strategies in schools and at home to help children maintain a positive body image prior to the onset of puberty.

Scientists propose a new lead for Alzheimer's research

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:15:08 PM
Scientists have suggested a potential link between iron in our cells and the rare gene mutations that cause Alzheimer's disease, which could provide new avenues for future research.

Can radar replace stethoscopes?

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:15:05 PM
Electronic engineers have developed a procedure for reliably detecting and diagnosing heart sounds using radar. In future, mobile radar devices could replace conventional stethoscopes and permanent touch-free monitoring of patients' vital functions could be possible using stationary radar devices.

Trees and climate change: Faster growth, lighter wood

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:15:01 PM
Trees are growing more rapidly due to climate change. This sounds like good news. After all, this means that trees are storing more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in their wood and hence taking away the key ingredient in global warming. But is it that simple? A team analyzed wood samples from the oldest existing experimental areas spanning a period of 150 years -- and reached a surprising conclusion.

Flipping the switch on supramolecular electronics

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:51 PM
Engineers have successfully combined photoswitchable molecular lattices with layered materials to create new high-performance devices that show macroscopic responses to light.

Tiny helpers that clean cells

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:44 PM
New results show which proteins assist the natural recycling process in the body.

How hot is Schrödinger's coffee?

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:41 PM
A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered.

Glacier depth affects plankton blooms off Greenland

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:38 PM
The unusual timing of highly-productive summer plankton blooms off Greenland indicates a connection between increasing amounts of meltwater and nutrients in these coastal waters. Researchers now show that this connection exists, but is much more complex than widely supposed. Whether increasing meltwater has a positive or negative effect on summertime phytoplankton depends on the depth at which a glacier sits in the ocean.

Severe declines of mountain hares on Scottish grouse moors

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:34 PM
Mountain hare numbers on moorlands in the eastern Highlands have declined to less than one per cent of their initial levels, according to a long-term scientific study.

Artificial placenta created in the laboratory

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:31 PM
Scientists have now produced an artificial placenta model that very closely resembles the natural organ. Using a specially developed femtosecond laser-based 3D printing process, it is possible to produce customized hydrogel membranes directly within microfluidic chips, which are then populated with placenta cells. This means it is now possible to provide clarity in some vital research issues, such as the exchange of glucose between mother and child.

Mixing energy drinks with alcohol could enhance the negative effects of binge drinking

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:29 PM
A key ingredient of energy drinks could be exacerbating some of the negative effects of binge drinking according to a new study.

Bacteria-fighting polymers created with light

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:26 PM
Hundreds of polymers -- which could kill drug-resistant superbugs in novel ways -- can be produced and tested using light, using a new method.

Fishing quotas upended by nuclear DNA analysis

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:24 PM
Fishing quotas have been decided using an inadequate method for decades, according to a new study. The same method has also been used to decide about culling, hunting quotas, or translocating threatened species. Analyzing the nuclear genome of sardines shows previously unrecognized genetic differences between populations, which are not identified by the go-to-method for Isolation-By-Distance, mitochondrial DNA analysis.

Wage gap between hospital executives and doctors is widening, study finds

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:21 PM
Over the past decade, salaries for hospital CEOs have risen much faster than for surgeons, physicians, and nurses, reports a new study.

Stress hormone is key factor in failure of immune system to prevent leukemia

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:18 PM
The human stress hormone cortisol has been identified as a key factor when the immune system fails to prevent leukemia taking hold.

'Alarming' diabetes epidemic in Guatemala tied to aging, not obesity

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:16 PM
The diabetes epidemic in Guatemala is worse than previously thought: more than 25 percent of its indigenous people, who make up 60 percent of the population, suffer from type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes, suggests a new study.

One antiplatelet drug after heart valve replacement

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:07 PM
Treatment guidelines say patients who undergo minimally invasive aortic heart valve replacements should receive two antiplatelet drugs to reduce the risk of dangerous blood clots. A new study has found that a single antiplatelet drug may work just as well, with lower risks of life-threatening bleeding and other complications.

Illinois' imperiled eastern massasauga rattlesnakes retain genetic diversity

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:04 PM
A long-term study of eastern massasauga rattlesnakes in Illinois reveals that -- despite their alarming decline in numbers -- the few remaining populations have retained a surprising amount of genetic diversity.

Large collection of brain cancer data now easily, freely accessible to global researchers

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:14:01 PM
A valuable cache of brain cancer biomedical data, one of only two such large collections in the country, has been made freely available worldwide.

Study identifies distinct origin of ADHD in children with history of brain injury

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:13:02 PM
Physical brain injury in children contributes to the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), distinct from genetic risk for the disorder.

Cetuximab+RT found to be inferior to standard treatment in HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:10:19 PM
An interim analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial of patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal cancer found that treatment with radiation therapy and cetuximab is associated with worse overall and progression-free survival compared to the current standard treatment with radiation and cisplatin. The trial was designed to see if cetuximab with radiation would be less toxic than cisplatin with radiation without compromising survival for patients with the disease.

Babies in strollers can be exposed to more than twice as much pollution than adults

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 02:09:57 PM
Babies in strollers or prams can be exposed to up to 60 percent more pollution than their parents, causing potential damage to their frontal lobe and impacting on their cognitive abilities and brain development.

Why do women get more migraines?

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 11:59:32 AM
Differing levels of sex hormones, especially estrogens, may explain why many more women than men suffer from migraines. A study provides evidence that these hormones affect cell mechanisms that control responses to migraine triggers, offering a possible pathway to more effective, personalized treatments.

California water managers vary in use of climate science

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 11:59:27 AM
Lack of climate change adaptation among water utilities can put water supplies and the people dependent on them at risk, especially in marginalized communities, a new article suggests.

Despite social development, gender attitudes chart different course globally

Tuesday August 14th, 2018 11:59:24 AM
Sociologists charts three distinct transitions in gender attitudes associated with national characteristics. Gender equality has spread unevenly.

Long-sought carbon structure joins graphene, fullerene family

Monday August 13th, 2018 11:01:56 PM
Scientists have been playing with pure carbon compounds for centuries, starting with diamond and graphite and now with fullerenes, nanotubes and graphene. One type of 3D geometry has been missing, however: a negatively curved carbon-cage surface called schwarzite. Chemists have now shown that serendipitously produced materials called zeolite-templated carbons are in fact the long-sought schwarzites. Their recipe for making schwarzites could make them practical in electronics and gas storage.

Remifentanil during labor could halve the number of women needing an epidural

Monday August 13th, 2018 11:01:51 PM
Half as many women in labor who were given a drug called remifentanil to help manage their pain needed a subsequent epidural, compared to the women given pethidine -- the current standard of care, according to an open-label randomized controlled trial.

E-cigarette vapor disables key immune cells in the lung and boosts inflammation

Monday August 13th, 2018 11:01:48 PM
E-cigarette vapor boosts the production of inflammatory chemicals and disables key protective cells in the lung that keep the air spaces clear of potentially harmful particles, reveals a small experimental study.

From windows to Mars: Scientists debut super-insulating gel

Monday August 13th, 2018 09:35:30 PM
A new gel could increase energy efficiency in skyscrapers and help scientists to build habitats on Mars.

A record number of Americans watched the 2017 solar eclipse -- and sought science afterward

Monday August 13th, 2018 09:35:26 PM
The 2017 total solar eclipse spurred a flurry of interest about solar eclipses, according to the final report of a survey led by the University of Michigan.

Cannabis link to relieving intestinal inflammation explained

Monday August 13th, 2018 09:35:21 PM
Reports from cannabis users that the drug reduces the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may finally be explained by new research showing that endocannabinoids help control and prevent intestinal inflammation in mice.

First study on physical properties of giant cancer cells may inform new treatments

Monday August 13th, 2018 09:35:18 PM
Giant cancer cells are much larger and stiffer than other cancer cells and move further, study shows.

Specialized delivery methods to help treat cancer, other disorders

Monday August 13th, 2018 09:35:14 PM
More than 100 years ago, German Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich popularized the 'magic bullet' concept -- a method that clinicians might one day use to target invading microbes without harming other parts of the body. Although chemotherapies have been highly useful as targeted treatments for cancer, unwanted side effects still plague patients. Now, researchers have demonstrated that specialized nucleic acid-based nanostructures could be used to target cancer cells while bypassing normal cells.

Mathematicians solve age-old spaghetti mystery

Monday August 13th, 2018 08:05:37 PM
It's nearly impossible to break a dry spaghetti noodle into only two pieces. A new MIT study shows how and why it can be done.

How Neolithic people adapted to climate change

Monday August 13th, 2018 08:05:34 PM
Research has uncovered evidence that early farmers were adapting to climate change 8,200 years ago.

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