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Science Daily is is an online source for topical science articles active since 1995. It features articles on a wide variety of science topics including: astronomy, exoplanets, computer science, nanotechnology, medicine, psychology, biology, geology, climate, space, physics, mathematics, chemistry, archeology, paleontology, and others.

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Last feed update: Tuesday January 23rd, 2018 03:13:04 AM

Inherited IQ can increase in early childhood

Tuesday January 23rd, 2018 05:11:26 AM
When it comes to intelligence, environment and education matter -- more than we think.

New Eocene fossil data suggest climate models may underestimate future polar warming

Monday January 22nd, 2018 11:46:07 PM
A new international analysis of marine fossils shows that warming of the polar oceans during the Eocene, a greenhouse period that provides a glimpse of Earth's potential future climate, was greater than previously thought.

Scientists discover 'Legos of life'

Monday January 22nd, 2018 10:55:26 PM
Scientists have found the “Legos of life” – four core chemical structures that can be stacked together to build the myriad proteins inside every organism – after smashing and dissecting nearly 10,000 proteins to understand their component parts. The four building blocks make energy available for humans and all other living organisms, according to a new study.

New neuron-like cells allow investigation into synthesis of vital cellular components

Monday January 22nd, 2018 09:47:02 PM
A new method to create synthetic neurons allows researchers to investigate how the human brain makes metabolic building blocks essential for the survival of all living organisms. A new study describes a core enzyme involved in the synthesis of these building blocks, called purines, and how the enzyme might change during infection by herpes simplex virus.

Big energy savings: Building the world's smallest electro-optic modulator

Monday January 22nd, 2018 09:46:59 PM
Researchers at have designed and fabricated the world's smallest electro-optic modulator, which could mean major reductions in energy used by data centers and supercomputers.

Inverse-design approach leads to metadevices

Monday January 22nd, 2018 09:46:54 PM
Scientists have used inverse design principles and a 3-D printer to create highly efficient broadband metadevices at millimeter-wave frequencies that could prove revolutionary for consumer products, defense, and telecommunications.

Researchers borrow from AIDS playbook to tackle rheumatic heart disease

Monday January 22nd, 2018 09:45:43 PM
Billions of US taxpayer dollars have been invested in Africa over the past 15 years to improve care for millions suffering from the HIV/AIDS epidemic; yet health systems on the continent continue to struggle. What if the investments and lessons learned from HIV could be used to improve care for those with other serious chronic conditions?

Ancient rice heralds a new future for rice production

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:08:54 PM
Growing in crocodile infested billabongs in the remote North of the country, Australia's wild rice has been confirmed as the most closely related to the ancient ancestor of all rices. The unique genetics of the Australian rice may help breed disease resistance and climate adaptation into rice modern production species.

Sound waves used to advance optical communication

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:08:06 PM
Researchers have demonstrated that sound waves can be used to produce ultraminiature optical diodes that are tiny enough to fit onto a computer chip. These devices, called optical isolators, may help solve major data capacity and system size challenges for photonic integrated circuits, the light-based equivalent of electronic circuits, which are used for computing and communications.

Engineers design artificial synapse for 'brain-on-a-chip' hardware

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:08:03 PM
Engineers have designed an artificial synapse in such a way that they can precisely control the strength of an electric current flowing across it, similar to the way ions flow between neurons. The team has built a small chip with artificial synapses, made from silicon germanium. In simulations, the researchers found that the chip and its synapses could be used to recognize samples of handwriting, with 95 percent accuracy.

Climate engineering, once started, would have severe impacts if stopped

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:07:58 PM
Facing a climate crisis, we may someday spray sulfur dioxide into the upper atmosphere to form a cloud that cools the Earth, but suddenly stopping the spraying would have a severe global impact on animals and plants, according to the first study on the potential biological impacts of geoengineering, or climate intervention.

New Caledonian crows extract prey faster with complex hooked tools

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:07:56 PM
Biologists have discovered why some crows 'craft' elaborate hooked tools out of branched twigs.

Climate change and snowmelt -- turn up the heat, but what about humidity?

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:07:54 PM
Changes in humidity may determine how the contribution of snowpack to streams, lakes and groundwater changes as the climate warms. Surprisingly, cloudy, gray and humid winter days can actually cause the snowpack to warm faster, increasing the likelihood of melt during winter months when the snowpack should be growing, the authors report. In contrast, under clear skies and low humidity the snow can become colder than the air, preserving the snowpack until spring.

Pathway opens to minimize waste in solar energy capture

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:07:49 PM
Researchers have made an important discovery with significant implications for the future of solar cell material design.

Digging deep into distinctly different DNA

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:07:42 PM
A new discovery has deepened our understanding of the genetic mutations that arise in different tissues, and how these are inherited. Researchers found the rates of genetic mutations in mitochondrial DNA vary across differing tissue types, with the highest rate occurring in reproductive cells.

Combined nutrients and warming massively increase methane emissions from lakes

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:07:39 PM
Shallow lakes in agricultural landscapes will emit significantly greater amounts of methane, mostly in the form of bubbles (ebullition) in a warmer world, which is a potential positive feedback mechanism to climate warming. Submerged plants are key predictors of methane ebullition. The combination of warming with the loss of plants appears to transform shallow lakes into methane bubbling machines.

First evidence of winds outside black holes throughout their mealtimes

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:07:37 PM
New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. The study sheds new light on how mass transfers to black holes and how black holes can affect the environment around them.

Kicking an old can of worms -- the origin of the head in annelids

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:07:11 PM
Researchers have described an exceptionally well-preserved new fossil species of bristle worm called Kootenayscolex barbarensis. Discovered from the 508-million-year-old Marble Canyon fossil site in the Burgess Shale in Kootenay National Park, the new species helps rewrite our understanding of the origin of the head in annelids, a highly diverse group of animals which includes today's leeches and earthworms.

Lab-made hormone may reveal secret lives of plants

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:06:47 PM
A new synthetic hormone promises to tease apart the many different roles of the plant hormone auxin and could lead to a new way to ripen fruit.

Wild Sri Lankan elephants retreat from sound of disturbed Asian honey bees

Monday January 22nd, 2018 08:01:57 PM
A new study using playbacks, has for the first time shown that Asian elephants in Sri Lanka are scared of honey bees, much like their African counterparts. The study showed that Asian elephants responded with alarm to the bee simulations. They also retreated significantly further away and vocalized more in response to the bee sounds compared to controls.

Role of cranial modification in identity formation: Did head shape encourage unity and cooperation in politics?

Monday January 22nd, 2018 07:59:18 PM
It has long been recognized that the Inka incorporated diverse peoples into their empire, but how these ethnic groups developed historically during the political upheaval of the preceding Late Intermediate Period (LIP; AD 1100-1450) is only now receiving commensurate attention.

Cryo-EM reveals critical protein-modifying complex and potential drug target

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:13:35 PM
Scientists have revealed the atomic-level structure of a molecular complex responsible for modifying proteins, possibly paving the way for the development of new medications for cancer and a host of other diseases.

Your brain responses to music reveal if you're a musician or not

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:12:04 PM
How your brain responds to music listening can reveal whether you have received musical training, according to new research. By applying methods of computational music analysis and machine learning on brain imaging data collected during music listening, the researchers we able to predict with a significant accuracy whether the listeners were musicians or not.

Two-dimensional circuit with magnetic quasi-particles

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:11:11 PM
Whether smart phone, computer or dialysis machine -- there is no electronic device without chips and their electronic components inside. The individual circuit elements are therefore often wired using three dimensional so called bridge constructions. Physicists are now working on a more efficient variation, where specific quasiparticles named magnons instead of electrons are being used. They have shown for the first time, in an initial model, that magnon current flow is possible in an integrated magnon circuit, in which case the components are only being connected two dimensionally.

A new assessment method for active aging

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:10:41 PM
Researchers have developed a new indicator for assessing active aging. Active aging refers to having initiative and doing things the aging person considers important. The indicator consists of a series of questions, which can be presented either in an interview or as a questionnaire. A score describing active ageing is calculated based on the responses. 

GoJelly project officially kicks off

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:10:39 PM
While the number of fish in our oceans continues to decrease, changing environmental conditions seem to favour jellyfish. They occur more often in large blooms. So far, they are considered annoying, if not dangerous. The project GoJelly aims to change that perception and to investigate the suitability of the organisms as microplastic filters, fertilizers or fish feed.

Global temperature targets will be missed within decades unless carbon emissions reversed

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:09:46 PM
New projections by researchers could be the catalyst the world has sought to determine how best to meet its obligations to reduce carbon emissions and better manage global warming as defined by the Paris Agreement.

Optical nanoscope allows imaging of quantum dots

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:09:44 PM
Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. In particular, the new method allows the imaging of quantum dots in a semiconductor chip.

A 'hot Jupiter' with unusual winds

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:09:42 PM
The hottest point on a gaseous planet near a distant star isn't where astrophysicists expected it to be -- a discovery that challenges scientists' understanding of the many planets of this type found in solar systems outside our own.

Boosting cancer therapy with artificial molecules

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:09:40 PM
Researchers have created artificial molecules that can help the immune system to recognize and attack cancer tumors.

Scientists discover material ideal for smart photovoltaic windows

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:08:35 PM
Researchers have discovered that a form of perovskite, one of the hottest materials in solar research currently due to its high conversion efficiency, works surprisingly well as a stable and photoactive semiconductor material that can be reversibly switched between a transparent state and a non-transparent state, without degrading its electronic properties.

User experiment at BESSY II: Complex tessellations, extraordinary materials

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:08:32 PM
Researchers have discovered a reaction path that produces exotic layers with semiregular structures. These kinds of materials are interesting because they frequently possess extraordinary properties. In the process, simple organic molecules are converted to larger units which form the complex, semiregular patterns.

A race against pine: Wood-boring wasp in North America threatened by a Eurasian invader

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:08:29 PM
Invasive species have diverse impacts in different locations, including biodiversity loss, as a result of native species being outcompeted for similar resources. A US research team studied the case of an aggressive Eurasian woodwasp that has recently established in North America and poses a threat to a native competitor species.

Using social and risk networks helps identify people undiagnosed with HIV

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:08:25 PM
Conducting HIV testing among the social and risk networks of those recently diagnosed with HIV helps identify undiagnosed cases of HIV at significantly higher rates and at a lower cost than other testing approaches, finds a new study conducted in Ukraine by an international research team.

Research helps break ground to clean up land

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:08:22 PM
Researchers have been exploring the intricate shapes that emerge when air is injected into soil. These findings could one day be used to speed up the decontamination of industrial brownfield sites.

Improving vaccines for the elderly by blocking inflammation

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:08:19 PM
By identifying why skin immunity declines in old age, a research team has found that an anti-inflammatory pill could help make vaccines more effective for elderly people. The study found that an excessive inflammation reaction in older people can obstruct the immune system.

Housing instability negatively affects the health of children and caregivers

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:08:15 PM
When families don't have stable housing, their risk of struggling with poor health outcomes and material hardships, such as food insecurity, increases, according to a new study. Researchers surveyed over 22,000 families and found that one third of low-income renters were housing unstable, which was associated with negative impacts on their health.

New for three types of extreme-energy space particles: Theory shows unified origin

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:08:12 PM
One of the biggest mysteries in astroparticle physics has been the origins of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, very high-energy neutrinos, and high-energy gamma rays. Now, a new theoretical model reveals that they all could be shot out into space after cosmic rays are accelerated by powerful jets from supermassive black holes. The model may set a new milestone on the path toward solving the half-century-old enigma of the origin of the highest-energy particles in the universe.

Persistent photoconductivity used to stimulate neurotypic cells

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:08:09 PM
Researchers have, for the first time, used a material's persistent photoconductivity to stimulate neurotype cells. The technique, which is relatively simple, should facilitate future research on using charge to influence cellular behavior.

Anemia discovery offers new targets to treat fatigue in millions

Monday January 22nd, 2018 04:08:06 PM
Researchers have discovered an unknown biological process that controls the production of vital cells that carry oxygen throughout the body. The discovery could help doctors develop new treatments for anemias that affect millions of people.

Seabed mining could destroy ecosystems

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:50 PM
Mining on the ocean floor could do irreversible damage to deep-sea ecosystems, says a new study of seabed mining proposals around the world.

Combination of resistance genes offers better protection for wheat against powdery mildew

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:47 PM
Plant researchers have tested newly developed wheat lines with improved resistance in field trials. They have demonstrated that a combination of two variations of a resistance gene provides wheat with better protection against the fungal disease.

New semiconductor processing technology developed

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:45 PM
Extremely fine porous structures with tiny holes -- resembling a kind of sponge at nano level -- can be generated in semiconductors. This opens up new possibilities for the realization of tiny sensors or unusual optical and electronic components.

New long-acting approach for malaria prophylaxis developed using nanomedicine approach

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:42 PM
A new study highlights a novel long-acting medicine for the prevention of malaria. The approach uses nanotechnology to improve the delivery of an existing antimalarial drug via a novel injectable format that can maintain blood concentration of the drug for weeks or months following a single dose.

Artificial intelligence predicts corruption

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:39 PM
Researchers from Spain have created a computer model based on neural networks which provides in which Spanish provinces cases of corruption can appear with greater probability, as well as the conditions that favor their appearance. This alert system confirms that the probabilities increase when the same party stays in government more years.

People with prosthetic arms less affected by common illusion

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:36 PM
People with prosthetic arms or hands do not experience the 'size-weight illusion' as strongly as other people, new research shows.

Bioinformaticians compute gene sequences inherited from each parent

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:33 PM
In the analysis of the human genome, one question researchers have so far left unanswered is how to differentiate the variants of a gene inherited from the mother and father. Such information would increase the likelihood of treating certain diseases successfully. The so-called third generation of sequencing technologies is now making this possible.

How cells are able to turn

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:30 PM
Researchers have long wondered how our cells navigate inside the body. Two new studies have now demonstrated that the cells use molecular force from within to steer themselves in a certain direction. This knowledge may be of great significance in the development of new drugs.

Cavity prevention approach effectively reduces tooth decay

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:27 PM
A scientifically based approach that includes a tooth-decay risk assessment, aggressive preventive measures and conservative restorations can dramatically reduce decay in community dental practices, according to a new study.

A method to measure diagnostic errors could be key to preventing disability and death from misdiagnosis

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:24 PM
In an effort to reduce patient misdiagnoses and associated poor patient outcomes from lack of prompt treatment, researchers are providing hospitals a new approach to quantify and monitor diagnostic errors in their quality improvement efforts.

Transportable laser

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:21 PM
Physicists have developed a frequency-doubling unit for transportable, optical atomic clock that will even continue to operate when it has been shaken at three times the Earth's gravitational acceleration.

Female cats are more likely to be right-handed, researchers discover

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:19 PM
Researchers have found that female cats are much more likely to use their right paw than males.

Want a healthier population? Spend less on health care and more on social services, Canadian study finds

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:16 PM
Increased social spending was associated with health improvements at the population level, while health spending increases did not have the same effect, according to a large new Canadian study.

Speech analysis software predicted psychosis in at-risk patients with up to 83 percent accuracy

Monday January 22nd, 2018 03:40:13 PM
Computer-based analyses of speech transcripts obtained from interviews with at-risk youths were able to predict which youths would later develop psychosis within two years, with an accuracy of up to 83 percent. In two independent cohorts of young people at risk for psychosis, a disturbance in the flow of meaning when speaking, otherwise known as being tangential or going off track, predicted who would later develop psychosis.

Depressive symptoms linked to shorter survival in patients with head and neck cancer

Monday January 22nd, 2018 02:13:23 PM
In a study of patients with head and neck cancer, even mild depressive symptoms were associated with poorer overall survival.

Heat loss from the Earth triggers ice sheet slide towards the sea

Monday January 22nd, 2018 02:13:21 PM
In North-East Greenland, researchers have measured the loss of heat that comes up from the interior of the Earth. This enormous area is a geothermal 'hot spot' that melts the ice sheet from below and triggers the sliding of glaciers towards the sea.

Finding unravels nature of cognitive inflexibility in Fragile X syndrome

Monday January 22nd, 2018 02:13:16 PM
Mice with the genetic defect that causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS) learn and remember normally, but show an inability to learn new information that contradicts what they initially learned, shows a new study by a team of neuroscientists.

New fuel cell technology runs on solid carbon

Monday January 22nd, 2018 02:13:12 PM
Advancements in a fuel cell technology powered by solid carbon could make electricity generation from coal and biomass cleaner and more efficient, according to a new article. Innovations in the anode, the electrolyte and the fuel allow the fuel cell to utilize more carbon, operate at lower temperatures and show higher maximum power densities than earlier direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs).

New insights into how your brain keeps its balance

Monday January 22nd, 2018 02:13:10 PM
An interdisciplinary team of scientists has discovered that two large protein kinases, ATM and ATR, cooperate to help establish the go/stop balance in human brains.

'Depression education' effective for some teens

Monday January 22nd, 2018 02:13:07 PM
In an assessment of their 'depression literacy' program, which has already been taught to tens of thousands, researchers say the Adolescent Depression Awareness Program achieved its intended effect of encouraging many teenagers to speak up and seek adult help for themselves or a peer.

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