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Science Daily is is an online source for topical science articles active since 1995. It features articles on a wide variety of science topics including: astronomy, exoplanets, computer science, nanotechnology, medicine, psychology, biology, geology, climate, space, physics, mathematics, chemistry, archeology, paleontology, and others.

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Last feed update: Wednesday April 24th, 2019 04:52:56 AM

Controlling instabilities gives closer look at chemistry from hypersonic vehicles

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 08:20:24 PM
While studying the chemical reactions that occur in the flow of gases around a vehicle moving at hypersonic speeds, researchers use a less-is-more method to gain greater understanding of the role of chemical reactions in modifying unsteady flows that occur in the hypersonic flow around a double-wedge shape.

Water walking: The new mode of rock skipping

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 08:20:19 PM
Researchers not only reveal the physics of how elastic spheres interact with water, but they also lay the foundation for the future design of water-walking drones.

Carbon dioxide from Silicon Valley affects the chemistry of Monterey Bay

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 06:55:20 PM
Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide in air flowing out to sea from Silicon Valley and the Salinas Valley could increase the amount of carbon dioxide dissolving in Monterey Bay waters by about 20 percent.

A global database of women scientists is diversifying the face of science

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 06:55:17 PM
Underrepresentation of women scientists in the public sphere perpetuates the stereotype of the white male scientist and fails both to reflect the true diversity of people practicing science today and to encourage more diversity.

New sensor detects rare metals used in smartphones

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 06:55:14 PM
A more efficient and cost-effective way to detect lanthanides, the rare earth metals used in smartphones and other technologies, could be possible with a new protein-based sensor that changes its fluorescence when it binds to these metals.

Experiences of 'ultimate reality' or 'God' confer lasting benefits to mental health

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 06:55:11 PM
In a survey of thousands of people who reported having experienced personal encounters with God, researchers report that more than two-thirds of self-identified atheists shed that label after their encounter, regardless of whether it was spontaneous or while taking a psychedelic.

New way to 'see' objects accelerates the future of self-driving cars

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 06:55:08 PM
Researchers have discovered a simple, cost-effective, and accurate new method for equipping self-driving cars with the tools needed to perceive 3D objects in their path.

Researchers see health effects across generations from popular weed killer

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:38:07 PM
Researchers have found a variety of diseases and other health problems in the second- and third-generation offspring of rats exposed to glyphosate, the world's most popular weed killer. In the first study of its kind, the researchers saw descendants of exposed rats developing prostate, kidney and ovarian diseases, obesity and birth abnormalities.

Scratching the skin primes the gut for allergic reactions to food, mouse study suggests

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:38:03 PM
Scratching the skin triggers a series of immune responses culminating in an increased number of activated mast cells -- immune cells involved in allergic reactions -- in the small intestine, according to research conducted in mice. This newly identified skin-gut communication helps illuminate the relationship between food allergy and atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema), a disease characterized by dry, itchy skin.

When designing clinical trials for Huntington's disease, first ask the experts

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:37:55 PM
Progress in understanding the genetic mutation responsible for Huntington's disease (HD) and at least some molecular underpinnings of the disease has resulted in a new era of clinical testing of potential treatments. How best to design clinical trials in which HD patients are willing to participate and comply is a question faced by researchers.

The buzz about bumble bees isn't good

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:37:49 PM
While many scientists are focused on the decline of honey bees, relatively few study bumble bees. The good news is that a new study provides an estimate on bumble bee population and distributions across Michigan in the past century. The bad news is that these results are dramatically low, and they mirror what's happening across the Americas, Europe and Asia, too.

New dispersion method to effectively kill biofilm bacteria could improve wound care

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:37:47 PM
Researchers have developed a method to treat bacterial infections which could result in better wound care.

How fish brain cells react to Alzheimer's disease

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:37:29 PM
Researchers have studied the regenerative capacity of zebrafish brain in single cell resolution with the aim of developing novel strategies against Alzheimer's.

Proofreading the book of life: Gene editing made safer

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:37:21 PM
Scientists describe a method of rendering the gene editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 'immunosilent,' potentially allowing the editing and repair of genes to be accomplished reliably and stealthily.

Good mousekeeping: En suite bathroom makes for happier mice

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:37:19 PM
Mice have a strong preference to nest away from their own waste, new research has found. The study showed that mice who were housed in a system of three interconnected cages used separate cages for nesting and eliminating waste. Typically, laboratories house mice in close proximity with their excrement. The study suggests this compromises their welfare and may also negatively affect research data.

Largest collection of coral reef maps ever made

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:37:05 PM
Scientists offer a new way to accurately map coral reefs using a combination of Earth-orbiting satellites and field observations. This first-ever global coral reef atlas contains maps of over 65,000 square kilometers (25,097 square miles) of coral reefs and surrounding habitats.

Atomic beams shoot straighter via cascading silicon peashooters

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:36:55 PM
Atomic beams conjure fantasies of gigantic Space Force canons. But there are real tiny atomic beams that shoot out of newly engineered collimators, a kind of tiny silicon peashooter, that could land in handheld devices. The beams streaming out of them create precise inertia much better than a gyroscope's that could help spacecraft navigate the solar system. The atomic beams from the new collimators could also let physicist cheaply and easily produce exotic quantum mechanical states.

Short period of parental sexual contact prior to pregnancy increases offspring risk of schizophrenia

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:36:53 PM
Children may be at a slightly increased risk of schizophrenia when their parents were in sexual contact for less than three years before conceiving them, according to new research.

Soft tissue makes coral tougher in the face of climate change

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:36:51 PM
A new study has revealed soft tissues that cover the rocky coral skeleton promote the recovery of corals following a bleaching event.

Study unravels mystery of antimicrobial frog secretions

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:36:48 PM
Japanese scientists have identified the molecular mechanism that gives the skin secretions of a species of frog effective antimicrobial properties. Unraveling the molecular mechanism that facilitates antimicrobial activity of these peptides can help us better understand how the defense system of the frog has evolved, and how this can be used to fight microbial infections of medical importance.

Eating elderberries can help minimize influenza symptoms

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:36:44 PM
Compounds from elderberries can directly inhibit the virus's entry and replication in human cells, and can help strengthen a person's immune response to the virus.

Quantum gas turns supersolid

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:36:42 PM
Researchers report on the observation of supersolid behavior in dipolar quantum gases of erbium and dysprosium. In the dysprosium gas these properties are unprecedentedly long-lived. This sets the stage for future investigations into the nature of this exotic phase of matter.

How light triggers brain activity

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:36:20 PM
Optogenetics uses light to control brain processes. It is based on light-controlled proteins such as channelrhodopsin-2, an ion channel that opens when it's exposed to light, thus activating cellular processes. The researchers have now shed light on its mode of action.

More evidence that blood tests can detect the risk of Alzheimer's

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:36:15 PM
A new study confirms that a simple blood test can reveal whether there is accelerating nerve cell damage in the brain. The researchers analyzed neurofilament light protein (NFL) in blood samples from patients with Alzheimer's disease. The study suggests that the NFL concentration in the blood could be able to indicate if a drug actually affects the loss of nerve cells.

Stressed, anxious? Ask the brain!

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:36:08 PM
Our actions are driven by 'internal states' such as anxiety, stress or thirst -- which will strongly affect and motivate our behaviors. Little is known about how such states are represented by complex brain-wide circuits, including sub-cortical structures such as the amygdala. Scientists have now used a deep brain imaging technique to monitor amygdala activity in active mice and revealed the neuronal dynamics encoding behavioral states.

Bacteria reveal strong individuality when navigating a maze

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:35:57 PM
Researchers demonstrate that genetically identical cells exhibit differing responses in their motility towards chemical attractants. Average values hide the full picture when it comes to describing the behavior of bacteria.

Why unique finches keep their heads of many colors

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:35:20 PM
There appears to be an underlying selection mechanism at work among Gouldian finches -- a mechanism that allows this species to produce and maintain individuals with red heads, black heads, and yellow heads.

How lifestyle affects our genes

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:34:51 PM
In the past decade, knowledge of how lifestyle affects our genes, a research field called epigenetics, has grown exponentially. Researchers have summarized the state of scientific knowledge within epigenetics linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Devil rays may have unknown birthing zone

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:34:39 PM
The discovery of dozens of pregnant giant devil rays tangled in fishing nets in a village along Mexico's Gulf of California could mean the endangered species has a previously unknown birthing zone in nearby waters, a study suggests. If more research confirms the possibility, the zone should be protected and placed off limits to fishing during times each spring when pregnant rays migrate there.

People with happy spouses may live longer

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 05:34:34 PM
Research suggests that having a happy spouse leads to a longer marriage, and now study results show that it's associated with a longer life, too.

Strongly agree: The number of response options matter when using a Likert Scale

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 03:40:33 PM
Researchers often tweak the number of response options in the traditional five-point Likert Scale with little empirical justification for doing so. Now a psychologist has tested the test. Leonard Simms says 'six appears to be the magic number' of responses.

Auroral 'speed bumps' are more complicated, scientists find

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 03:40:31 PM
Researchers find that 'speed bumps' in space, which can slow down satellites orbiting closer to Earth, are more complex than originally thought.

Arctic warming will accelerate climate change and impact global economy

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 03:40:27 PM
Carbon released into the atmosphere by the increasing loss of Arctic permafrost, combined with higher solar absorption by the Earth's surface due to the melting of sea ice and land snow, will accelerate climate change -- and have a multi-trillion dollar impact on the world economy.

Nanocomponent is a quantum leap

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 03:40:24 PM
Researchers have developed a nanocomponent that emits light particles carrying quantum information. Less than one-tenth the width of a human hair, the minuscule component makes it possible to scale up and could ultimately reach the capabilities required for a quantum computer or quantum internet.

Dengue mosquito is Queensland's biggest threat for spreading Zika virus

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 03:40:22 PM
Researchers have found that the dengue fever mosquito common to north and central Queensland poses the greatest danger of spreading the Zika virus in Australia. The researchers showed that not only was the dengue mosquito effective at transmitting Zika, the virus was also in the mosquitoes' reproductive organs. This finding suggests that Zika could persist in mosquito populations by females passing it to their offspring.

A new window into macaque brain connections

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 03:40:01 PM
Researchers can now see how the two sides of the living brain mirror each other thanks to a new combination-imaging technique. The method dubbed 'opto-OISI' takes advantage of rapidly developing high-resolution optical technologies to help make sense of the trillions of connections in the brain.

Meet B. fragilis, a bacterium that moves into your gut and evolves to make itself at home

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 03:39:58 PM
Researchers have analyzed population genomics and metagenomics to investigate the microbiome evolution of Bacteroides fragilis, one of the most prevalent bacteria found in humans' large intestines. In a new paper, the authors describe how the common gut microbe adapts and evolves within individuals as well as across Western versus Eastern cultures.

Playing video games generally not harmful to boys' social development

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 03:39:56 PM
A new longitudinal study conducted in Norway looked at how playing video games affects the social skills of 6- to 12-year-olds. It found that playing the games affected youth differently by age and gender, but that generally speaking, gaming was not associated with social development.

How 'superbug' E. coli clones take over human gut

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 03:39:53 PM
A 'superbug' clone of E. coli has evolved to prevent itself from becoming so dominant that it could potentially wipe out the bacteria from existence, scientists have discovered.

Scientists propose new theory on Alzheimer's, amyloid connection

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 03:39:51 PM
'Is amyloid precursor protein the mastermind behind Alzheimer's or is it just an accomplice?' Researchers devised a multi-functional reporter for amyloid precursor protein and tracked its localization and mobility, noticing a strange association between the protein and cholesterol that resides in the cell membrane of synapses. With cholesterol's broad involvement in almost all aspects of neurons' life, they propose a new theory on the amyloid precursor protein connection in AD, especially in the surface of those tiny synapses, which triggers neurodegeneration.

Proofreading the book of life: Gene editing made safer

Tuesday April 23rd, 2019 03:39:49 PM
A new method renders the gene editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 'immunosilent,' potentially allowing the editing and repair of genes to be accomplished reliably and stealthily.

Researchers find high-risk genes for schizophrenia

Monday April 22nd, 2019 09:05:38 PM
Using a unique computational 'framework' they developed, a team of scientist cyber-sleuths has identified 104 high-risk genes for schizophrenia.

Overlooked molecular machine in cell nucleus may hold key to treating aggressive leukemia

Monday April 22nd, 2019 09:05:36 PM
Many people fighting a very aggressive form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) don't survive more than five years. These very sick patients are often unable to receive the only cure -- a bone marrow transplant. Now, an international team of scientists report on a long-overlooked part of a leukemic cell's internal machinery, where they may have found a key to treating the aggressive blood cancer.

How slippery surfaces allow sticky pastes and gels to slide

Monday April 22nd, 2019 09:05:33 PM
A research team that has already conquered the problem of getting ketchup out of its bottle has now tackled a new category of consumer and manufacturing woe: how to get much thicker materials to slide without sticking or deforming.

Metformin may help patients maintain weight loss long-term

Monday April 22nd, 2019 09:05:30 PM
In the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) clinical trial and its long-term follow-up study, among the persons who lost at least 5 percent of their body weight during the first year, long-term maintenance of weight loss was more likely if they had been assigned to treatment with metformin than with placebo or lifestyle intervention. Being older and losing a greater amount of weight in the first year were the most consistent predictors of lasting weight loss.

With abdominal etching, plastic surgeons help patients get 'six-pack abs'

Monday April 22nd, 2019 07:50:08 PM
Even with a good diet and workout routine, some men and women have trouble getting the toned abdominal appearance they want. For these patients, a technique called abdominal etching can help in creating the classic 'six-pack abs' physique in men or three-vertical-line abdomen in women, reports a new study.

Working out makes hydrogels perform more like muscle

Monday April 22nd, 2019 07:50:04 PM
Human skeletal muscles have a unique combination of properties that materials researchers seek for their own creations. They're strong, soft, full of water, and resistant to fatigue. A new study has found one way to give synthetic hydrogels this total package of characteristics: putting them through a vigorous workout.

No increase in complications with 'tummy tuck' in obese patients

Monday April 22nd, 2019 07:10:38 PM
'Tummy tuck' surgery (abdominoplasty) can be safely performed in obese patients, with no increase in complications compared to non-obese patients, reports a new study.

Defying the laws of physics? Engineers demonstrate bubbles of sand

Monday April 22nd, 2019 07:10:35 PM
A recent discovery explains a new family of gravitational instabilities in granular particles of different densities that are driven by a gas-channeling mechanism not seen in fluids. The team observed an unexpected Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T)-like instability in which lighter grains rise through heavier grains in the form of 'fingers' and ''granular bubbles, similar to the bubbles that form and rise in lava lamps.

Protecting damaged hearts with microRNAs

Monday April 22nd, 2019 07:10:32 PM
Once the heart is formed, its muscle cells have very limited ability to regenerate. After a heart attack, these cells die off and scar tissue forms, potentially setting people up for heart failure. A new study advances the possibility of using microRNAs -- small molecules that regulate gene function -- to regenerate heart muscle. In mice, two microRNAs that are abundant in developing hearts, miR-19a and miR-19b, repaired heart muscle and improved cardiac function after heart attack.

New genomics tool ECCITE-seq expands multimodal single cell analysis

Monday April 22nd, 2019 07:10:26 PM
ECCITE-seq (Expanded CRISPR-compatible Cellular Indexing of Transcriptomes and Epitopes by sequencing) allows researchers to perform high-throughput measurements of multiple modalities of information from single cells. The technique profiles different types of biomolecules from thousands of single cells in parallel, offering a breadth of information that can be used as readout in CRISPR-based pooled genetics screens.

A deep learning tool for personalized workout recommendations from fitness tracking data

Monday April 22nd, 2019 07:10:23 PM
Computer scientists have developed FitRec, a recommendation tool powered by deep learning, that is able to better estimate runners' heart rates during a workout and predict and recommend routes.

Brains of blind people adapt to sharpen sense of hearing, study shows

Monday April 22nd, 2019 07:10:20 PM
Research uses functional MRI to identify two differences in the brains of blind individuals -- differences that might be responsible for their abilities to make better use of auditory information.

Climate change has worsened global economic inequality

Monday April 22nd, 2019 07:10:17 PM
The gap between the economic output of the world's richest and poorest countries is 25 percent larger today than it would have been without global warming, according to new research.

Sugar entering the brain during septic shock causes memory loss

Monday April 22nd, 2019 07:10:15 PM
The loss of memory and cognitive function known to afflict survivors of septic shock is the result of a sugar that is released into the blood stream and enters the brain during the life-threatening condition.

Anti-tumor activity of curcumin on stomach cancer

Monday April 22nd, 2019 05:15:45 PM
A review article evaluated several compounds with therapeutic potential against gastric tumors.

New novel circulating proteins involved in progression of DKD to ESRD

Monday April 22nd, 2019 05:15:42 PM
Seventeen proteins, called the Kidney Risk Inflammatory Signature (KRIS), could allow doctors to determine the risk of progression to end stage renal disease in a patient with diabetic kidney disease.

Wristband samplers show similar chemical exposure across three continents

Monday April 22nd, 2019 05:15:39 PM
Researchers have deployed chemicals to individuals on three continents, they found that no two wristbands had identical chemical detections. But the same 14 chemicals were detected in more than 50 percent of the wristbands returned from the United States, Africa and South America.

Heterogeneous catalyst goes enzymatic

Monday April 22nd, 2019 04:11:39 PM
Researchers demonstrated enzyme-like heterogeneous catalysis for the first time. They developed a highly active heterogeneous TiO2 photocatalyst incorporated with many single copper atoms. They used this catalyst for the photocatalytic hydrogen production, and found that the catalyst is as active as the most active and expensive Pt-TiO2 catalyst.

Neonics hinder bees' ability to fend off deadly mites

Monday April 22nd, 2019 03:28:18 PM
A new study is the first to uncover the impact of neonicotinoid pesticides on honey bees' ability to groom and rid themselves of deadly mites.

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