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Science Daily is is an online source for topical science articles active since 1995. It features articles on a wide variety of science topics including: astronomy, exoplanets, computer science, nanotechnology, medicine, psychology, biology, geology, climate, space, physics, mathematics, chemistry, archeology, paleontology, and others.

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Last feed update: Thursday September 21st, 2017 09:18:39 PM

New technique accurately digitizes transparent objects

Thursday September 21st, 2017 08:12:58 PM
A new imaging technique makes it possible to precisely digitize clear objects and their surroundings, an achievement that has eluded current state-of-the-art 3-D rendering methods.

Babies can learn that hard work pays off

Thursday September 21st, 2017 08:12:53 PM
A new study reveals babies as young as 15 months can learn the value of hard work. Researchers found babies who watched an adult struggle to reach two different goals before succeeding tried harder at their own difficult task than babies who saw an adult succeed effortlessly.

New hope for people with fibromyalgia

Thursday September 21st, 2017 08:12:43 PM
A novel psychological therapy that encourages addressing emotional experiences related to trauma, conflict and relationship problems has been found helpful for people with the chronic pain condition fibromyalgia.

Into more thin air: Exploring the adaptation extremes of human high altitude sickness and fitness

Thursday September 21st, 2017 08:12:36 PM
Many research groups have explored human adaptation to high altitude living among three major far-flung global populations: Tibetans, Ethiopians and Peruvians. But few have simultaneously explored the other extreme---maladaptation----in the form of chronic mountain sickness (CMS). Now, in the largest whole genome study of its kind, an international research team led by University of California San Diego's Chairman of Pediatrics, Dr. Gabriel Haddad, has expanded on their recent study of understanding both adaptation extremes in a Peruvian population.

Dancing electrons lose the race

Thursday September 21st, 2017 06:13:25 PM
Ultrashort pulses of light were employed by physicists to start a race between electrons emitted from different initial states in a solid material. Timing this race revealed an unexpected result: the fastest electrons arrived in last place.

Japanese encephalitis vaccine cuts disease rate in Nepal

Thursday September 21st, 2017 06:13:17 PM
From 2006 through 2011, Nepal conducted a mass immunization campaign against Japanese encephalitis -- a mosquito-borne viral disease. Now, investigators have reported that the vaccination effort prevented thousands of cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE) and cut JE rates in Nepal by at least 78 percent.

Ancient DNA data fills in thousands of years of human prehistory in Africa

Thursday September 21st, 2017 06:13:11 PM
By sequencing the ancient genomes of 15 individuals from different parts of Africa, researchers reporting in the journal Cell on Sept. 21 have reconstructed the prehistory of humans on the continent, going back thousands of years. The findings shed light on which human populations lived in eastern and southern Africa between 8,000 and 1,000 years ago, the researchers say.

Scientists sequence asexual tiny worm whose lineage stretches back 18 million years

Thursday September 21st, 2017 06:13:03 PM
A team of scientists has sequenced, for the first time, a tiny worm that belongs to a group of exclusively asexual species that originated approximately 18 million years ago -- making it one of the oldest living lineages of asexual animals known.

Detecting cosmic rays from a galaxy far, far away

Thursday September 21st, 2017 06:12:57 PM
Where do cosmic rays come from? Solving a 50-year-old mystery, a collaboration of researchers has discovered it's much farther than the Milky Way.

Jellyfish, with no brains, still seem to sleep

Thursday September 21st, 2017 06:12:52 PM
The discovery that primitive jellyfish sleep suggests that sleep is an ancient, evolutionarily conserved behavior.

Why poison frogs don't poison themselves

Thursday September 21st, 2017 06:12:38 PM
Poison frogs harbor some of the most potent neurotoxins we know, yet scientists have long wondered -- how do these frogs keep from poisoning themselves? Scientists are now a step closer to resolving that head-scratcher. And the answer has potential consequences for the fight against pain and addiction.

Reconstructing how Neanderthals grew, based on an El Sidrón child

Thursday September 21st, 2017 06:12:15 PM
How did Neanderthals grow? Does modern man develop in the same way as Homo neanderthalensis did? How does the size of the brain affect the development of the body? Researchers have studied the fossil remains of a Neanderthal child's skeleton in order to establish whether there are differences between the growth of Neanderthals and that of sapiens.

Rapid hepatitis C testing may help better screen young adults

Thursday September 21st, 2017 06:12:05 PM
Routine and rapid hepatitis C virus testing among young adults who use injection drugs improves life expectancy and may provide a good use of limited resources, according to new research.

Early trilobites had stomachs, new fossil study finds

Thursday September 21st, 2017 06:12:01 PM
Exceptionally preserved trilobite fossils from China, dating back to more than 500 million years ago, have revealed new insights into the extinct marine animal's digestive system. The new study shows that at least two trilobite species evolved a stomach structure 20 million years earlier than previously thought.

Exosomes are the missing link to insulin resistance in diabetes

Thursday September 21st, 2017 06:11:59 PM
Chronic tissue inflammation resulting from obesity is an underlying cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. But the mechanism by which this occurs has remained cloaked, until now. In a new paper, researchers identified exosomes -- extremely small vesicles or sacs secreted from most cell types -- as the missing link.

How staph cells dodge the body's immune system

Thursday September 21st, 2017 04:58:22 PM
For years, medical investigators have tried and failed to develop vaccines for a type of staph bacteria associated with the deadly superbug MRSA. But a new study shows how staph cells evade the body's immune system, offering a clearer picture of how a successful vaccine would work.

Blood metal ion levels can identify hip replacement patients at low risk of ARMD

Thursday September 21st, 2017 04:58:20 PM
Patients with 'metal on metal' artificial hips are at risk of complications caused by adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD). A study confirms that blood metal ion levels specific to the type of hip implant used can help predict patients who are at low risk of ARMD.

Quantum teleportation of patterns of light

Thursday September 21st, 2017 04:11:47 PM
Researchers have demonstrated entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. This is a crucial step towards realizing a quantum repeater for high-dimensional entangled states.

Rapid imaging of granular matter

Thursday September 21st, 2017 04:11:42 PM
Granular systems such as gravel or powders can be found everywhere, but studying them is not easy. Researchers have now developed a method by which pictures of the inside of granular systems can be taken 10,000 times faster than before.

Flu vaccine used in elderly may benefit middle-aged adults with chronic conditions

Thursday September 21st, 2017 04:11:39 PM
Expanding the high-dose influenza vaccine recommendation to include middle-aged adults with chronic health conditions may make economic sense and save lives. The findings may justify for clinical trials of the high-dose and new recombinant trivalent influenza vaccines in 50- to 64-year-old adults with chronic illnesses, such as heart or lung disease, diabetes, or cancer, to determine if they do provide considerably better protection than the currently recommended standard dose quadrivalent vaccine.

New analysis explains role of defects in metal oxides

Thursday September 21st, 2017 04:11:37 PM
Researchers have determined formulas to guide development of a promising new high-tech material, composed of insulating metal oxides known as alkaline-earth-metal binary oxides, that could lead to better computer memory chips, refrigeration systems, and other devices.

Wildlife rangers: What motivates them?

Thursday September 21st, 2017 04:11:34 PM
Wildlife rangers are on the front lines protecting our most iconic species -- tigers, elephants, gorillas and many others. But their challenges involve more than confrontations with wild animals and poachers.

Dino-killing asteroid's impact on bird evolution

Thursday September 21st, 2017 04:11:31 PM
Human activities could change the pace of evolution, similar to what occurred 66 million years ago when a giant asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs, leaving modern birds as their only descendants.

One in four girls is depressed at age 14

Thursday September 21st, 2017 03:07:06 PM
New research shows a quarter of girls (24%) and one in 10 boys (9%) are depressed at age 14.

Mitochondria drive cell survival in times of need

Thursday September 21st, 2017 03:07:01 PM
Researchers have discovered a mechanism through which mitochondria, the energy factory of our body's cells, play a role in preventing cells from dying when the cells are deprived of nutrients -- a finding that points to a potential target for next-generation cancer drugs.

Surprising discovery: How the African tsetse fly really drinks your blood

Thursday September 21st, 2017 03:06:58 PM
Researchers have been taking a close-up look at the biting mouthparts of the African tsetse fly as part of ongoing work on the animal diseases it carries. Using a new high-powered scanning electron microscope, researchers were able to see the rows of sharp teeth and rasps that the fly uses to chew through the skin when it bites.

Hope to discover sure signs of life on Mars? New research says look for the element vanadium

Thursday September 21st, 2017 03:06:54 PM
A new article suggests NASA and others hunting for proof of Martian biology in the form of 'microfossils' could use the element vanadium in combination with Raman spectroscopy to confirm traces of extraterrestrial life.

Broad swath of US deemed environmentally suitable for mosquitoes that transmit disease

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:42:50 PM
Three-quarters of counties in the contiguous United States present suitable environmental conditions for at least part of the year for either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes to survive if introduced, according to researchers. The two mosquito species can transmit viruses that cause Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever.

New hermit crab uses live coral as its home

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:42:49 PM
A new hermit crab species can live in a walking coral's cavity in a reciprocal relationship, replacing the usual marine worm partner, according to a new study.

Brain inflammation linked to suicidal thinking in depression

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:42:45 PM
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased brain levels of a marker of microglial activation, a sign of inflammation, according to a new study. Scientists have found that the increase in the inflammatory marker was present specifically in patients with MDD who were experiencing suicidal thoughts, pinning the role of inflammation to suicidality rather than a diagnosis of MDD itself.

Better rechargeable batteries coming soon?

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:17:54 PM
Novel lithium electrodes coated with indium could be the basis for more powerful, longer-lasting, rechargeable batteries. The coating hinders undesirable side-reactions between the electrode and electrolyte, provide a more uniform deposition of lithium when charging, and augments storage in the lithium anode via alloying reactions between lithium and indium. Their success stems from the good diffusion of lithium ions along the interfacial layer.

Big herbivorous dinosaurs ate crustaceans as a side dish

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:17:51 PM
Some big plant-eating dinosaurs roaming present-day Utah some 75 million years ago were slurping up crustaceans on the side, a behavior that may have been tied to reproductive activities, says a new study.

Production of key diabetes cells can be improved

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:17:48 PM
In the future diabetics might benefit from getting insulin-regulating beta cells transplanted into their body because their own beta cells are destroyed or less functional. However, according to new stem cell research, the current way of producing beta cells from stem cells has significant shortfalls. The beta cells produced have some features resembling alpha cells.

Changing of the guard: Research sheds light on how plants breathe

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:17:43 PM
New research is set to change the textbook understanding of how plants breathe. Researchers have developed the first full 3D model of a guard cell.

Scientists and farmers work together to wipe out African lovegrass

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:17:41 PM
New research and collaboration could lead to the eventual eradication of the highly invasive African lovegrass threatening pastures and native grasslands Australia-wide. What they discovered is that local knowledge is the key to a successful management approach.

Obese dogs helped by 'effective' weight loss trials

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:17:38 PM
On average overweight dogs lose an average of 11 percent of their body weight when enrolled on a weight loss trial according to researchers who have conducted the largest international multi-center weight study.

Astonishing time limit for ultrafast perovskite solar cells set

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:17:35 PM
Researchers have quantified the astonishingly high speeds at which future solar cells would have to operate in order to stretch what are presently seen as natural limits on their energy conversion efficiency.

Lightning-fast trappers: Biomechanics of suction traps in carnivorous bladderworts

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:17:33 PM
New findings have been gained on the biomechanics and evolution of suction traps in carnivorous bladderworts.

Researchers discover new cattle disease and prevent it from spreading

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:17:30 PM
Following genetic studies of deformed calves, research is able to uncover a previously unknown disease found among Holstein cattle. The breeding bull from which the mutation and thus the deformation originate has now been put down to prevent the disease from spreading further.

Whole food diet may help prevent colon cancer, other chronic conditions

Thursday September 21st, 2017 02:17:27 PM
A diet that includes plenty of colorful vegetables and fruits may contain compounds that can stop colon cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases in pigs, according to an international team of researchers. Understanding how these compounds work on a molecular level could be an initial step toward finding treatments for people with cancer, they added.

Increasing frequency of blood donation has no major side effects

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:55:15 PM
Giving blood more frequently - up to every 8 weeks for men and every 12 weeks for women - has no major side effects and could help to increase blood stocks, according to the first ever randomized trial of blood donation involving more than 45000 people in England.

Treating asthma or COPD with steroid inhaler increases the risk of hard-to-treat infections

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:55:13 PM
Older people who use steroid inhalers for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are more likely to suffer particular bacterial infections, according to a large study.

Diamonds show Earth still capable of ‘superhot’ surprises

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:55:11 PM
Diamonds may be ‘forever’ but some may have formed more recently than geologists thought. A study of 26 diamonds, formed under extreme melting conditions in the Earth’s mantle, found two populations, one of which has geologically ‘young’ ages. The results show that certain volcanic events on Earth may still be able to create super-heated conditions previously thought to have only existed early in the planet’s history before it cooled. The findings may have implications for diamond prospecting.

Solar eruption ‘photobombed’ Mars encounter with Comet Siding Spring

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:50:30 PM
When Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) passed just 140,000 kilometers from Mars on 19th October 2014, depositing a large amount of debris in the Martian atmosphere, space agencies coordinated multiple spacecraft to witness the largest meteor shower in recorded history. It was a rare opportunity, as this kind of planetary event occurs only once every 100,000 years.

New genetic test for predicting cancer recurrence

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:50:26 PM
Researchers have discovered a new genetic test which could help predict cancer recurrence - paving the way for more precise, personalised treatments.

In times of climate change: What a lake’s color can tell about its condition

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:50:24 PM
With the help of satellite observations from 188 lakes worldwide, scientists have shown that the warming of large lakes amplifies their color. Lakes which are green due to their high phytoplankton content tend to become greener in warm years as phytoplankton content increases. Clear, blue lakes with little phytoplankton, on the other hand, tend to become even bluer in warm years caused by declines in phytoplankton. Thus, contrary to previous assumptions, the warming of lakes tends to amplify their richness or poverty of phytoplankton.

Cannabis, 'spice' – better think twice

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:49:24 PM
Marijuana is the most commonly abused drug in the world, and the advent of synthetic cannabinoids creates additional challenges to the society because of their higher potency and ability to escape drug detection screenings.  Scientists have a warning about a new danger coming from cannabinoid abuse.

Football helmet smartfoam signals potential concussions in real time, study suggests

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:03:13 PM
While football-related concussions have been top of mind in recent years, people have struggled to create technology to accurately measure them in real time. Engineers have now developed and tested a nano composite smartfoam that can be placed inside a football helmet (and pads) to more accurately test the impact and power of hits.

No magic pill to cure alcohol dependence yet

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:03:09 PM
A new study has found no reliable evidence for using nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen or topiramate to control drinking in patients with alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorder. At best, some treatments showed low to medium efficacy in reducing drinking, but those findings were from studies with a high risk of bias. None demonstrated any benefit on health outcomes.

Many YouTube videos glorify alcohol

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:03:07 PM
YouTube videos featuring alcohol are heavily viewed and nearly always promote the 'fun' side of drinking.

Tiny Brazilian frogs are deaf to their own calls

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:03:04 PM
Pumpkin toadlets, found on the leaf litter of Brazil's Atlantic forest, are among the smallest frogs in the world. Scientists have now discovered that two species of these tiny orange frogs cannot hear the sound of their own calls.

Precisely defined polymer chains now a reality

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:03:01 PM
The materiality exhibited by humanmade polymers currently relies on simple chemical bonds and the sequence order taken by molecules in the polymer chain. We now no longer need to rely on fate to determine such materiality with this new technique for precisely defining polymer-chain order. This system uses highly specific 'grabber' ends on each molecule that bond with only one type of 'pin' end on another molecule.

An extraordinary cave animal found in Eastern Turkmenistan

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:02:59 PM
A remote cave in Eastern Turkmenistan was found to shelter a marvelous cave-adapted inhabitant that turned out to represent a species and genus new to science. This new troglodyte is the first of its order from Central Asia and the first strictly subterranean terrestrial creature recorded in the country.

Premature births cost health plans $6 billion annually

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:02:56 PM
A new study estimates employer-sponsored health plans spent at least $6 billion extra on infants born prematurely in 2013 and a substantial portion of that sum was spent on infants with major birth defects.

Higher manganese levels in children correlate with lower IQ scores

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:02:51 PM
A study led by environmental health researchers finds that children in East Liverpool, Ohio with higher levels of Manganese (Mn) had lower IQ scores.

Going diving in the tropics? Don't eat the reef fish!

Thursday September 21st, 2017 01:02:48 PM
Reducing tourist consumption of reef fish is critical for Palau's ocean sustainability, finds a new study that suggests other small island nations might also consider adopting this strategy.

Pay more, smoke less: Possible effects of raising tobacco taxes across the EU

Thursday September 21st, 2017 03:22:26 AM
Raising tobacco taxes to increase cigarette prices could reduce cigarette consumption and smoking-associated deaths (SADs) in all 28 EU countries, according to a new study. In higher income countries, raising tobacco taxes could increase revenues that could be spend on prevention and control programs, while in lower income countries tax revenues may be negatively affected, researchers suggest.

Inflammatory bowel disease in childhood associated with increased risk of cancer

Thursday September 21st, 2017 03:22:23 AM
Children diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease have an increased risk of cancer, especially gastrointestinal cancers, both in childhood and later in life, finds a study.

Individualized diets for irritable bowel syndrome better than placebo

Thursday September 21st, 2017 03:22:17 AM
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome who follow individualized diets based on food sensitivity testing experience fewer symptoms, say researchers. Their study is among the first to provide scientific evidence for this medication-free approach to a debilitating condition.

Efforts to save sea turtles are a 'global conservation success story'

Wednesday September 20th, 2017 10:21:23 PM
A new study of the world's seven sea turtle species provides evidence that their numbers are growing overall (unlike many endangered vertebrates), thanks to years of conservation efforts that have played a key role in sea turtle recovery -- even for small sea turtle populations.






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