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Science Daily is is an online source for topical science articles active since 1995. It features articles on a wide variety of science topics including: astronomy, exoplanets, computer science, nanotechnology, medicine, psychology, biology, geology, climate, space, physics, mathematics, chemistry, archeology, paleontology, and others.

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Last feed update: Monday November 20th, 2017 05:29:25 PM

Chimp females who leave home postpone parenthood

Monday November 20th, 2017 07:15:14 PM
Female chimps that lack supportive friends and family wait longer to start having babies, researchers find. An analysis of more than 50 years' worth of daily records for female chimpanzees in Gombe National Park in Tanzania indicates that would-be moms who leave home or are orphaned take roughly three years longer to start a family.

Survey taps students' motivation in STEM

Monday November 20th, 2017 07:15:07 PM
Researchers are learning more about undergraduates' experience in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) classes and sharing a set of survey questions that will help researchers and educators at other universities do the same.

Preclinical study demonstrates promising treatment for rare bone disease

Monday November 20th, 2017 07:15:04 PM
Researchers have led a preclinical study demonstrating that the drug palovarotene suppresses the formation of bony tumors (osteochondromas) in models of multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE). The research is an important step toward an effective pharmacological treatment for MHE, a rare genetic condition that affects about 1 in 50,000 people worldwide.

New way to write magnetic info could pave the way for hardware neural networks

Monday November 20th, 2017 07:15:01 PM
Researchers have shown how to write any magnetic pattern desired onto nanowires, which could help computers mimic how the brain processes information.

Astronomers reveal nearby stars that are among the oldest in our galaxy

Monday November 20th, 2017 07:14:56 PM
Astronomers have discovered some of the oldest stars in our Milky Way galaxy by determining their locations and velocities.

Genome sequencing reveals extensive inbreeding in Scandinavian wolves

Monday November 20th, 2017 07:14:53 PM
Researchers have for the first time determined the full genetic consequences of intense inbreeding in a threatened species.

Sleeve gastrectomy, common weight-loss surgery, lowers women's tolerance to alcohol

Monday November 20th, 2017 06:39:22 PM
Women who have had gastric sleeve surgery to lose weight may want to consider limiting the number of alcoholic drinks they consume post-surgery. A new study found that after undergoing sleeve gastrectomy, women could be legally intoxicated after drinking half the number of drinks than women who did not have this surgery.

Seafloor sediments appear to enhance Earthquake and Tsunami danger in Pacific Northwest

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:45:11 PM
The Cascadia Subduction Zone off the coast of the Pacific Northwest has all the ingredients for making powerful earthquakes -- and according to the geological record, the region is due for its next 'big one.' A new study has found that the occurrence of these big, destructive quakes and associated devastating tsunamis may be linked to compact sediments along large portions of the subduction zone.

Brain stimulation can change how much we enjoy and value music

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:45:08 PM
Researchers have proven it is possible to increase or decrease our enjoyment of music, and our craving for more of it, by enhancement or disruption of certain brain circuits.

Patient-centered medical home model improves chronic disease management

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:45:06 PM
Data from more than 800 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) primary care clinics revealed that national implementation of a patient-centered medical home model was effective at improving several chronic disease outcomes over time.

Cell cycle proteins help immune cells trap microbes with nets made of DNA

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:45:03 PM
In your bloodstream, there are immune cells called neutrophils that, when faced with a pathogenic threat, will expel their DNA like a net to contain it. These DNA snares are called neutrophil extracellular traps or NETs. Researchers describe an important step in how these NETs are released and how they stop a fungus from establishing an infection in mice and human cells.

Previous evidence of water on Mars now identified as grainflows

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:44:57 PM
Dark features previously proposed as evidence for significant liquid water flowing on Mars have now been identified as granular flows, where sand and dust move rather than liquid water, according to a new article. These findings indicate that present-day Mars may not have a significant volume of liquid water. The water-restricted conditions that exist on Mars would make it difficult for Earth-like life to exist near the surface.

Materialists collect Facebook friends and spend more time on social media

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:44:49 PM
If you're materialistic, you're likely to use Facebook more frequently and intensely. A new article reveals that materialistic people see and treat their Facebook friends as 'digital objects,' and have significantly more friends than people who are less interested in possessions. It also shows that materialists have a greater need to compare themselves with others on Facebook.

Antarctic landscape insights keep ice loss forecasts on the radar

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:09:52 PM
New maps of a mountainous landscape under a key glacier in West Antarctica will be a valuable aid in forecasting sea level changes.

Righty blue whales sometimes act like lefties, study finds

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:09:43 PM
To support their hulking bodies, blue whales use various acrobatic maneuvers to scoop up many individually tiny prey, filtering the water back out through massive baleen plates. In most cases, the whales roll to the right as they capture their prey, just as most people are right-handed. But, researchers now show that the whales shift directions and roll left when performing 360° barrel rolls in shallow water.

Smoking study personalizes treatment

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:09:41 PM
A simple blood test is allowing researchers to determine which patients should be prescribed varenicline (Chantix) to stop smoking and which patients could do just as well, and avoid side effects, by using a nicotine patch.

Key signaling protein for muscle growth

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:09:38 PM
Researchers have discovered the importance of a well-known protein, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), in the development and regeneration of muscles. Researchers have described the protein's critical role in the growth and repair of skeletal muscles, both in post-natal development and in the regeneration of injured adult muscles.

First interstellar asteroid is like nothing seen before

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:09:35 PM
For the first time ever astronomers have studied an asteroid that has entered the Solar System from interstellar space. Observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile and other observatories around the world show that this unique object was traveling through space for millions of years before its chance encounter with our star system. It appears to be a dark, reddish, highly-elongated rocky or high-metal-content object.

Nanoparticles could allow for faster, better medicine

Monday November 20th, 2017 05:09:32 PM
Gold nanoparticles could help make drugs act more quickly and effectively, according to new research.

Light green plants save nitrogen without sacrificing photosynthetic efficiency

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:36:50 PM
Scientists designed plants with light green leaves with hopes of allowing more light to penetrate the crop canopy and increase overall light use efficiency and yield. This strategy was tested in a recent modeling study that found leaves with reduced chlorophyll content do not actually improve canopy-level photosynthesis, but instead, conserve a significant amount of nitrogen that the plant could reinvest to improve light use efficiency and increase yield.

One source of potent greenhouse gas pinned down

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:36:46 PM
Researchers have discovered the first known methane-producing microbe that is active in an oxygen-rich environment -- a finding that suggests today's global climate models may be misjudging the amount of methane being released into the atmosphere.

Clay mineral waters Earth's mantle from the inside

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:36:42 PM
The first observation of a super-hydrated phase of the clay mineral kaolinite could improve our understanding of processes leading to volcanism and affecting earthquakes. In the lab, scientists created conditions similar to those in subduction zones where an oceanic plate dives under the continental crust. Transport of water with subducting plates causes volcanic activity, according to new research.

Added Arctic data shows global warming didn't pause

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:43 PM
Missing Arctic temperature data, not Mother Nature, created the seeming slowdown of global warming from 1998 to 2012, according to a new study.

Scientific research on disasters represents 0.22 percent of global scholarly output

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:39 PM
Despite loss of life and economic devastation worldwide due to increasingly frequent natural and human-made disasters, scientific research on disasters represents a small percentage of scholarly output.

Hydrological implications of rapid global warming

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:36 PM
Researchers studying a rapid global warming event, around 56 million years ago, have shown evidence of major changes in the intensity of rainfall and flood events. The findings indicate some of the likely implications should current trends of rising carbon dioxide and global warming continue.

What makes soil, soil? Researchers find hidden clues in DNA

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:33 PM
Ever wondered what makes a soil, soil? And could soil from the Amazon rainforest really be the same as soil from your garden?

Rise in oxygen levels links to ancient explosion of life, researchers find

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:29 PM
Scientists have found that oxygen levels appear to increase by roughly 80 percent at about the same time as a three-fold increase in biodiversity during the Ordovician Period, between 445 and 485 million years ago.

Space dust may transport life between worlds, research suggests

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:26 PM
Life on Earth might have originated from tiny organisms brought to our planet in streams of fast-moving space dust, according to a new study.

Artificial photosynthesis gets big boost from new catalyst

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:24 PM
A new catalyst brings researchers one step closer to artificial photosynthesis -- a system that, just like plants, would use renewable energy to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into stored chemical energy. By both capturing carbon emissions and storing energy from solar or wind power, the invention provides a one-two punch in the fight against climate change.

Zika-related nerve damage caused by immune response to the virus

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:22 PM
The immune system's response to the Zika virus, rather than the virus itself, may be responsible for nerve-related complications of infection, according to a Yale study. This insight could lead to new ways of treating patients with Zika-related complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, the researchers said.

New biology of Alzheimer's disease described by researchers

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:19 PM
A unique model for the biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is now being described by researchers, which may lead to an entirely novel approach for treating the disease.

New cell therapy for relapsed leukemia patients, suggested by clinical trial

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:16 PM
A significant proportion of children and young adults with treatment-resistant B-cell leukemia who participated in a small study achieved remission with the help of a new form of gene therapy, according to researchers.

Molecules in spit may be able to diagnose, predict length of concussions

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:13 PM
Diagnosing a concussion can sometimes be a guessing game, but clues taken from small molecules in saliva may be able to help diagnose and predict the duration of concussions in children, according to researchers.

Blueprint to reduce wasteful blood transfusions

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:10 PM
By analyzing data from randomized clinical trials comparing blood transfusion approaches, experts endorse recommendations for blood transfusions that reduce blood use to improve patient safety and outcomes. The report also provides a how-to guide for launching a patient blood management program.

Brain cell advance brings fresh hope for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease therapies

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:06 PM
Scientists have developed a new system to study Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the laboratory, paving the way for research to find treatments for the fatal brain disorder.

A curious quirk brings organic diode lasers one step closer

Monday November 20th, 2017 04:13:03 PM
Since their invention in 1962, semiconductor diode lasers have revolutionized communications and made possible information storage and retrieval in CDs, DVDs and Blu-ray devices. These diode lasers use inorganic semiconductors grown in elaborate high vacuum systems. Now, a team of researchers has taken a big step toward creating a diode laser from a hybrid organic-inorganic material that can be deposited from solution on a laboratory benchtop.

Disposable optical test substrate for detecting harmful microbes

Monday November 20th, 2017 03:48:24 PM
Harmful microbes and toxic micromolecules in food and drinking water can cause serious health problems around the world. Now a researcher has developed a disposable optical test substrate for use in microbial detection. The aim is to enable cost-effective detection of harmful microbes and toxins.

Spin current from heat: New material increases efficiency

Monday November 20th, 2017 03:48:21 PM
Electronic devices such as computers generate heat that mostly goes to waste. Physicists have found a way to use this energy: They apply the heat to generate magnetic signals known as 'spin currents'. In future, these signals could replace some of the electrical current in electronic components.

Smiling human faces are attractive to dogs, thanks to oxytocin

Monday November 20th, 2017 03:48:19 PM
Researchers found that oxytocin made dogs interested in smiling human faces. It also made them see angry faces as less threatening. Associated with affection and trust, the hormone oxytocin is probably a key factor in the interaction between dogs and humans.

New approach to studying chromosomes' centers may reveal link to Down syndrome and more

Monday November 20th, 2017 03:48:16 PM
A new technique may force the centromere -- the mysterious stretch of DNA in the center of every chromosome -- to give up its secrets at last. The first test of the approach has yielded clues about the role of centromeres in Down syndrome, and further use may accelerate research on other conditions that may have roots in centromere-related problems.

Digital pills successfully monitor opioid use after injury

Monday November 20th, 2017 03:48:10 PM
Investigators report on the results from a pilot study of 15 individuals who received a prescription to take oxycodone digital pills as needed following treatment for acute fractures. The team found that the opioid-naïve patients self-administered opioids to manage pain for only a brief period and only took a fraction of the number of pills they were given.

Protein 'intentionally' terminates own synthesis by destabilizing synthesis machinery -- the ribosome

Monday November 20th, 2017 03:13:14 PM
Cell biologists have discovered that a protein, during its synthesis, may destabilize the structure of the ribosome and end its own synthesis prematurely, and found that this phenomenon is used for adapting the cell to its environment.

Diabetes drug helps repair UV-damaged DNA in cells of 'Moon children'

Monday November 20th, 2017 03:13:05 PM
The severe and debilitating genetic disease Xeroderma pigmentosum impedes cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. Scientists found a drug approved for diabetes treatment to alleviate the impact of the gene defect in cell culture, which led to the discovery of a previously unknown DNA repair mechanism.

Photocrosslinkable, thermoreversible, type-I collagen bioink for photolithographic printing

Monday November 20th, 2017 03:13:02 PM
Biomedical engineers have leveraged a unique combination of properties of methacrylated collagen to demonstrate its potential as a bioink capable of simple, photolithographic printing of 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Type-I collagen is the most ubiquitous protein in the human body. Chief among the fibril forming collagens, type-I collagen gives many soft tissues strength and structure. Type-I collagen is also easily extracted from tissues, and it is frequently used as a 2D or 3D substrate for in vitro studies. Its ability to self-assemble hierarchically into strong and flexible fibers and its excellent biocompatibility across species also make it a popular biomaterial for applications in tissue engineering. However, its fibrillar, higher order structure also complicates collagen's use as a bioink for 3D printing, which would otherwise be an increasingly popular approach to regenerative medicine.

Thinking big by burning small

Monday November 20th, 2017 03:12:59 PM
Creative fire management can increase habitat for wildebeest and other grazing animals in national parks, research indicates. The work shows that small, repeated fires can have a concentrating effect on animals, and create 'grazing-lawn ecosystems' where food quality is higher and herbivores can see predators from further away.

Benzodiazepines increase mortality in persons with Alzheimer's disease

Monday November 20th, 2017 03:12:54 PM
Benzodiazepine and related drug use is associated with a 40 percent increase in mortality among persons with Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study.

Improved method of engineering T-cells to attack cancer

Monday November 20th, 2017 03:12:52 PM
Researchers have found a way to boost the cancer-destroying ability of the immune system's T-cells, offering new hope in the fight against a wide range of cancers.

Uncovering essential enzymes for plant growth during nitrogen starvation

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:37:25 PM
A study has found that two key enzymes in plants called PAH1 and PAH2 are critical for survival and growth under nitrogen-depleted conditions. The study sheds new light on how plants could be modified in future to boost tolerance to nutrient-poor environments.

Proteins in breastmilk protect offspring against food allergy

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:37:22 PM
The breastmilk of mothers exposed to egg during pregnancy and breastfeeding has been found to protect nursing newborns against egg allergy symptoms. This research in mice reinforces recent guidance that women should not avoid allergenic foods while they are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Hydrogen cars for the masses one step closer to reality, thanks to invention

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:37:18 PM
A new device that can inexpensively and efficiently create and store energy and create hydrogen fuel, and that needs only sunlight to operate, has now been developed by researchers.

Pre-diabetes discovery marks step towards precision medicine

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:36:49 PM
Identification of three molecules that can be used to accurately assess pre-diabetes -- a key predictor of conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure -- has brought precision medicine for humans a step closer.

Osimertinib improves progression-free survival in Asian EGFR-mutated lung cancer patients

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:36:45 PM
Osimertinib improves progression-free survival compared to standard first line therapy in Asian patients with EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to the Asian subset analysis of the FLAURA trial.

Theory linking cognition, genes and income refuted

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:21:03 PM
Researchers have cast doubt on a widely-held belief that connects family income with cognitive development. The popular theory holds that genes play a larger role in brain development for children from advantaged environments than in those from poorer backgrounds, especially in the United States.

Jellyfish: Stinging cells pack a powerful pressure

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:00:53 PM
The stinging cells of jellyfish, called nematocytes, have evolved to be one of the world's most efficient predation tools. The nematocysts consist of a capsule and folded tubule, and use high pressure and acceleration for defense and locomotion and, more importantly, to capture prey. Inconsistencies in a previous conceptual explanation of the stinging cell mechanism were identified using a microfluidic system and mathematical models.

Underwater Sniffing of Star-Nosed Moles Is Mimicked for Chemical-Detecting ‘Electronic Nose’

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:00:51 PM
The star-nosed mole has several unusual abilities. One of them is “sniffing” underwater by blowing bubbles and quickly re-inhaling them, detecting odors of its prey through the water. The moles’ “star” nose features a ring of tiny, pink tentacles and is the most sensitive known touch organ of any mammal.

Plesiosaur flippers inspire a steering mechanism for swimming robotic vehicle

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:00:49 PM
Plesiosaurs, who thrived during the early to middle Jurassic Period, used four paddlelike flippers of nearly equal size and musculature to swim. Despite the seemingly subpar engineering, the fossil record reveals that plesiosaurs were widespread and prolific. This inspired a team to explore how swimming with four flippers might be advantageous compared to two.

Bubbles clustering while pouring stout beers?

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:00:47 PM
If you’ve poured a stout beer into a pint glass, you may have wondered about the or physics behind the rapid rise of bubbles and three-color shift when dark, medium and light shades are all clearly visible, before it transitions to simply beer and foam.

The physics behind dandelion seed plume dispersal revealed

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:00:45 PM
The fluffy dandelion seed head infuriates gardeners, but delights physicists. That’s because those seeds may lend key insights into the physics of parachutes, useful for designing small drones, or micro air vehicles. Investigators reveal why, at low Reynolds numbers, the rules for big parachutes don’t apply to small dandelions.

'Magic' sinus paths could mean new instructions for nasal sprays

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:00:43 PM
Sinus infections, inflammation and nasal congestion constantly plague Americans, often leading to unpleasant symptoms and even missed days of work. Traditional nasal spray anti-inflammatory medications attempt to treat the symptoms noninvasively, but are not very efficient in transmitting the active drug ingredients directly into the sinus cavities.

Raindrops splash pathogens onto crops

Monday November 20th, 2017 02:00:41 PM
Pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses or fungi, cause harmful plant disease and often lead to the destruction of agricultural fields. With many possible dispersal methods, it can often be difficult to assess the damage of a pathogen’s impact before it’s too late.

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