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Last feed update: Tuesday June 2nd, 2020 05:29:51 AM

Today's atmospheric carbon dioxide levels greater than 23 million-year record

Monday June 1st, 2020 11:41:44 PM
A common message in use to convey the seriousness of climate change to the public is: 'Carbon dioxide levels are higher today than they have been for the past one million years!' This new study used a novel method to conclude that today's carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are actually higher than they have been for the past 23 million years.

Loggerhead sea turtles host diverse community of miniature organisms

Monday June 1st, 2020 11:41:42 PM
Researchers found that more than double the number of organisms than previously observed live on the shells of these oceanic reptiles, raising important questions about loggerhead sea turtle ecology and conservation.

COVID-19 outbreak lasts days longer for each day's delay in social distancing

Monday June 1st, 2020 07:46:52 PM
A new analysis of COVID-19 outbreaks in 58 cities has found that places that took longer to begin implementing social distancing measures spent more time with the virus rapidly spreading than others that acted more quickly. Epidemiological researchers have published research finding every day a city delayed implementing social distancing measures after the appearance of a first case added 2.4 days to the length of the outbreak.

Study seeks to optimize comfort for patients removed from ventilators at end of life

Monday June 1st, 2020 07:46:50 PM
A recently published paper reports on a study of the palliative ventilator withdrawal (PVW) procedure performed in intensive care units (ICU) at end of life.

Loss of land-based vertebrates is accelerating

Monday June 1st, 2020 07:21:53 PM
Analysis of thousands of vertebrate species reveals that extinction rates are likely much faster than previously thought. The researchers call for immediate global action, such as a ban on the wildlife trade, to slow the sixth mass extinction.

New biosensor visualizes stress in living plant cells in real time

Monday June 1st, 2020 07:21:47 PM
Plant biologists have developed a new nanosensor that monitors foundational mechanisms related to stress and drought. The new biosensor allows researchers to analyze changes in real time as they happen involving kinases, enzymes that catalyze key biological activities in proteins. Certain kinases are essential since they are known to be activated in response to drought conditions, triggering the protective closure of small pores on leaf surfaces known as stoma.

Why asteroids Bennu and Ryugu have their signature 'spinning-top' shapes

Monday June 1st, 2020 07:21:46 PM
Scientists with NASA's first asteroid sample return mission, OSIRIS-REx, are gaining a new understanding of asteroid Bennu's carbon-rich material and signature "spinning-top" shape. The team has discovered that the asteroid's shape and hydration levels provide clues to the origins and histories of this and other small bodies.

Across the cell membrane

Monday June 1st, 2020 06:48:28 PM
Aquaporins and glucose transporters facilitate the movement of substances across biological membranes and are present in all kingdoms of life.Biophysicists used a supercomputer to explore the atomic behavior of these proteins. The research suggests glucose transporters function by using a gate on the extracellular side that opens and closes based on body temperature.

Class of stellar explosions found to be galactic producers of lithium

Monday June 1st, 2020 06:48:23 PM
Astrophysicists have combined theory with both observations and laboratory studies and determined that a class of stellar explosions, called classical novae, are responsible for most of the lithium in our galaxy and solar system.

Monitoring environmental exposures in dogs could be early warning system for human health

Monday June 1st, 2020 05:46:14 PM
Man's best friend may also be man's best bet for figuring out how environmental chemicals could impact our health.

Asymmetry found in spin directions of galaxies

Monday June 1st, 2020 05:46:12 PM
The patterns formed by spiral galaxies show that the universe may have a defined structure and suggest that the early universe could have been spinning, according to a computational astronomer.

Warmer temperatures slow COVID-19 transmission, but not by much

Monday June 1st, 2020 05:46:10 PM
Researchers looked at the impact of temperature, precipitation, and UV index on COVID-19 case rates in the United States during the spring months of 2020. The findings reveal that while the rate of COVID-19 incidence does decrease with warmer temperatures up until 52 degrees F, further warmer temperatures do not decrease disease transmission significantly.

How Americans are coping with COVID-19 stress

Monday June 1st, 2020 05:46:07 PM
Almost overnight, the rapid emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and subsequent state and federal prevention measures dramatically altered daily behavior. A new study provides the first snapshot of the immediate impact of COVID-19 on Americans' stress levels, coping strategies, and adherence to public health guidelines.

New study provides maps, ice favorability index to companies looking to mine the moon

Monday June 1st, 2020 05:46:03 PM
A research team has created an Ice Favorability Index. The geological model explains the process for ice formation at the poles of the moon, and mapped the terrain, which includes craters that may hold ice deposits. The model, accounts for what asteroid impacts on the surface of the moon may do to deposits of ice found meters beneath the surface.

Extra choline may help pregnant women decrease negative effects of COVID-19 on their newborns

Monday June 1st, 2020 05:46:01 PM
Pregnant women who take extra choline supplements may mitigate the negative impact that viral respiratory infections, including COVID-19, can have on their babies, according to a new study in the Journal of Psychiatric Research.

The cascade to criticality

Monday June 1st, 2020 05:45:56 PM
Combined theoretical and experimental work unveils a novel mechanism through which criticality emerges in quasiperiodic structures -- a finding that provides unique insight into the physics on the middle ground between order and disorder.

Kirigami grips could help seniors keep their footing

Monday June 1st, 2020 05:45:52 PM
You've never seen a pair of snake skin shoes like this before. Researchers have developed pop-up shoe grips, inspired by snake skin, that can increase friction between the shoe and the ground. The assistive grips could be used, among other things, to reduce the risk of falling among older adults.

Measuring ocean acidification along US coasts

Monday June 1st, 2020 05:45:50 PM
Scientists have conducted an in-depth study that looks at carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the coastal oceans of North America.

Squid studies suggest new route to therapy for ALS, targeting synaptic dysfunction

Monday June 1st, 2020 05:45:47 PM
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most devastating adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. Patients, including the late actor/playwright Sam Shepard, become progressively weaker and eventually paralyzed as their motor neurons degenerate and die.

A new type of matter discovered inside neutron stars

Monday June 1st, 2020 04:00:36 PM
A research group has found strong evidence for the presence of exotic quark matter inside the cores of the largest neutron stars in existence. The conclusion was reached by combining recent results from theoretical particle and nuclear physics to measurements of gravitational waves from neutron star collisions.

New NiMH batteries perform better when made from recycled old NiMH batteries

Monday June 1st, 2020 04:00:34 PM
A new method for recycling old batteries can provide better performing and cheaper rechargeable hydride batteries (NiMH) as shown in a new study.

Hot stars are plagued by giant magnetic spots, ESO data shows

Monday June 1st, 2020 03:33:37 PM
Astronomers have discovered giant spots on the surface of extremely hot stars hidden in stellar clusters. Not only are these stars plagued by magnetic spots, some also experience superflare events, explosions of energy several million times more energetic than similar eruptions on the Sun. The findings help astronomers better understand these puzzling stars and open doors to resolving other elusive mysteries of stellar astronomy.

Dry air drives overlooked changes in how plants drink and breathe

Monday June 1st, 2020 03:33:35 PM
New research suggests dry air combined with warmer temperatures may prompt bigger than expected changes in how water moves through plants. The adjustment may allow plants to survive with less water in future droughts, while downshifting how much carbon they absorb.

The Milky Way has one very hot halo, astronomers find

Monday June 1st, 2020 03:33:28 PM
The halo that surrounds our own Milky Way galaxy is much hotter than scientists once believed - and it may not be unique among galaxies.

Universal virus detection platform to expedite viral diagnosis

Monday June 1st, 2020 03:33:24 PM
The prompt, precise, and massive detection of a virus is the key to combat infectious diseases such as Covid-19. A new viral diagnostic strategy using reactive polymer-grafted, double-stranded RNAs will serve as a pre-screening tester for a wide range of viruses with enhanced sensitivity.

Cancer cells cause inflammation to protect themselves from viruses

Monday June 1st, 2020 03:33:19 PM
Researchers have uncovered how cancer cells protect themselves from viruses that are harmful to tumors but not to healthy cells. These findings could lead to improved viral treatments for the disease.

A good egg: Robot chef trained to make omelettes

Monday June 1st, 2020 03:33:15 PM
A team of engineers have trained a robot to prepare an omelette, all the way from cracking the eggs to plating the finished dish, and refined the 'chef's' culinary skills to produce a reliable dish that actually tastes good.

Theoretical breakthrough shows quantum fluids rotate by corkscrew mechanism

Monday June 1st, 2020 02:46:06 PM
Scientists performed simulations of merging rotating superfluids, revealing a peculiar corkscrew-shaped mechanism that drives the fluids into rotation without the need for viscosity.

Lessening water quality problems caused by hurricane-related flooding

Monday June 1st, 2020 02:13:11 PM
June 1 is the start of hurricane season in the Atlantic, and with 2020 predicted to be particularly active, residents in coastal regions are keeping watchful eyes on the weather. Flooding is often the most damaging effect of tropical storms, and it can disproportionately affect vulnerable people and ecosystems. Researchers have studied water quality impacts of two recent hurricanes in North Carolina and suggest interventions to protect susceptible areas.

Underlying illness risk factors for severe COVID-19 or death

Monday June 1st, 2020 02:13:08 PM
Age, male sex, obesity, and underlying illness have emerged as risk factors for severe COVID-19 or death in the UK, according to the largest cohort study to date.

Study shows hydroxychloroquine's harmful effects on heart rhythm

Monday June 1st, 2020 02:13:06 PM
The malaria drug hydroxychloroquine, which has been promoted as a potential treatment for Covid-19, is known to have potentially serious effects on heart rhythms. Now, a team of researchers has used an optical mapping system to observe exactly how the drug creates serious disturbances in the electrical signals that govern heartbeat.

Like a treasure map, brain region emphasizes reward location

Monday June 1st, 2020 02:13:00 PM
Neuroscientists found that a brain region called the lateral septum encodes spatial information with a special emphasis on the location of the reward.

Orbital ordering triggers nucleation-growth behavior of electrons in an inorganic solid

Monday June 1st, 2020 02:12:57 PM
A new study found that orbital ordering in a vanadate compound exhibits a clear nucleation-growth behavior. Their observation is the first of its kind, where electrons in an inorganic solid created two soft phases, and where the nucleation-growth behavior was observed due to the surface tension created between the phases.

Ancient genomes link subsistence change and human migration in northern China

Monday June 1st, 2020 11:29:59 AM
Northern China is among the first centers in the world where agriculture developed, but its genetic history remains largely unknown. Researchers have now analyzed 55 ancient genomes from China, finding new correlations between the intensification of subsistence strategies and human migration. This work provides a comprehensive archaeogenetic overview of northern China and fuels the debate about the archaeological and linguistic signatures of past human migration.

Disorder in fish shoals may reap rewards at dinner time

Monday June 1st, 2020 11:29:57 AM
The advantages of animals foraging in an orderly group are well-known, but researchers have now found an element of unruly adventure can help fish in the quest for food.

Scientists discover new forms of feldspars

Monday June 1st, 2020 11:29:55 AM
In high-pressure experiments, scientists have discovered new forms of the common mineral feldspar. At moderate temperatures, these hitherto unknown variants are stable at pressures of Earth's upper mantle, where common feldspar normally cannot exist. The discovery could change the view at cold subducting plates and the interpretation of seismologic signatures.

Researchers develop viable sodium battery

Monday June 1st, 2020 11:29:51 AM
Researchers have created a sodium-ion battery that holds as much energy and works as well as some commercial lithium-ion battery chemistries, making for a potentially viable battery technology out of abundant and cheap materials. The team reports one of the best results to date for a sodium-ion battery.

Impact of children's loneliness today could manifest in depression for years to come

Monday June 1st, 2020 12:03:33 AM
A rapid review into the mental health impacts of loneliness on children and young people concludes that there could be a spike in demand for mental health services in the years to come.

NASA astronauts launch from America in historic test flight of SpaceX Crew Dragon

Saturday May 30th, 2020 09:26:12 PM
For the first time in history, NASA astronauts have launched from American soil in a commercially built and operated American crew spacecraft on its way to the International Space Station.

New sunspots potentially herald increased solar activity

Saturday May 30th, 2020 08:31:07 PM
On May 29, 2020, a family of sunspots -- dark spots that freckle the face of the Sun, representing areas of complex magnetic fields -- sported the biggest solar flare since October 2017. Although the sunspots are not yet visible (they will soon rotate into view over the left limb of the Sun), NASA spacecraft spotted the flares high above them.

The fight goes on: Clinical trial shows promising new treatment for rare blood cancer

Saturday May 30th, 2020 03:36:32 PM
Although lymphoma is one of the most common types of blood cancer, it has a rare subtype for which no effective treatment regimens are known. For the first time, researchers have conducted clinical trials for a new treatment protocol and report it to be quite promising.

COVID-19 patients who undergo surgery are at increased risk of postoperative death

Friday May 29th, 2020 11:07:39 PM
Patients undergoing surgery after contracting coronavirus are at greatly increased risk of postoperative death, a new global study reveals. Researchers found that amongst SARS-CoV-2 infected patients who underwent surgery, mortality rates approach those of the sickest patients admitted to intensive care after contracting the virus in the community.

How the coronavirus could be prevented from invading a host cell

Friday May 29th, 2020 11:07:37 PM
How might the novel coronavirus be prevented from entering a host cell in an effort to thwart infection? A team of biomedical scientists has made a discovery that points to a solution. The scientists report that two proteases -- enzymes that break down proteins -- located on the surface of host cells and responsible for processing viral entry could be inhibited.

Scientists develop method to help epidemiologists map spread of COVID-19

Friday May 29th, 2020 11:07:34 PM
Scientists have developed a method they believe will help epidemiologists more efficiently predict the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Their new study outlines a solution to the SIR epidemic model, which is commonly used to predict how many people are susceptible to, infected by, and recovered from viral epidemics.

Key player in hepatitis A virus infection

Friday May 29th, 2020 08:13:01 PM
Researchers designed experiments using gene-editing tools to discover how molecules called gangliosides serve as de facto gatekeepers to allow the virus entry into liver cells and trigger disease.

Adolescent exposure to anesthetics may cause alcohol use disorder, new research shows

Friday May 29th, 2020 08:12:58 PM
Early exposure to anesthetics may make adolescents more susceptible to developing alcohol use disorder (AUD), according to new research.

Evolution of pandemic coronavirus outlines path from animals to humans

Friday May 29th, 2020 08:12:21 PM
A team of scientists studying the origin of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that has caused the COVID-19 pandemic, found that it was especially well-suited to jump from animals to humans by shapeshifting as it gained the ability to infect human cells.

A rising tide of marine disease? How parasites respond to a warming world

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:07:18 PM
A recent study explores the ways parasitism will respond to climate change, providing researchers new insights into disease transmission.

Paper-thin gallium oxide transistor handles more than 8,000 volts

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:07:16 PM
Electrical engineers created a gallium oxide-based transistor that can handle more than 8,000 volts. The transistor could lead to smaller and more efficient electronic systems that control and convert electric power -- a field of study known as power electronics -- in electric cars, locomotives and airplanes. In turn, this could help improve how far these vehicles can travel.

Paid sick leave mandates hold promise in containing COVID-19

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:07:14 PM
Mandates like those found in the federal government's Families First Coronavirus Response Act may be helping to slow the pandemic.

Older men worry less than others about COVID-19

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:07:12 PM
Older men may be at greater risk of contracting COVID-19 because they worry less about catching or dying from it, according to a new study.

Using brain imaging to demonstrate weaker neural suppression for those with autism

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:07:10 PM
A new study shows the differences in visual motion perception in autism spectrum disorder are accompanied by weaker neural suppression in the visual cortex of the brain.

Integrating satellite and socioeconomic data to improve climate change policy

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:07:08 PM
Bangladesh is on track to lose all of its forestland in the next 35-40 years, leading to a rise in CO2 emissions and subsequent climate change, researchers said. However, that is just one of the significant land-use changes that the country is experiencing. A new study uses satellite and census data to quantify and unravel how physical and economic factors drive land-use changes. Understanding this relationship can inform climate policy at the national scale in Bangladesh and beyond.

Yes, your dog wants to rescue you

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:07:06 PM
Imagine you're a dog. Your owner is trapped in a box and is crying out for help. Are you aware of his despair? If so, can you set him free? And what's more, do you really want to? That's what researchers wanted to know when they gave dogs the chance to rescue their owners.

Smart windows that self-illuminate on rainy days

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:07:04 PM
A research team develops self-powering, color-changing humidity sensors. Applicable to various fields including smart windows, health care and safety management.

New view on how tissues flow in the embryo

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:07:02 PM
Watching and measuring what happens in tissues inside the human embryo is currently not possible, and it's difficult to do in mammalian models. Because humans and the fruit fly Drosophila share so many biological similarities, researchers tackled this problem by focusing on fruit flies. The team reports today that they can predict when the tissue will begin to rapidly flow just by looking at cell shapes in the tissue.

'Single pixel' vision in fish helps scientists understand how humans can spot tiny details

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:06:56 PM
Recently discovered 'single-pixel vision' in fish could help researchers understand how humans are able to spot tiny details in their environment -- like stars in the sky.

Heightened interaction between neolithic migrants and hunter-gatherers in Western Europe

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:06:54 PM
This study reports new genome-wide data for 101 prehistoric individuals from 12 archaeological sites in today's France and Germany, dating from 7000-3000 BCE, and documents levels of admixture between expanding early Neolithic farmers and local hunter-gatherers seen nowhere else in Europe.

When COVID-19 meets flu season

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:06:51 PM
As if the COVID-19 pandemic isn't scary enough, the flu season is not far away. How severe will the flu season be as it converges with the COVID-19 outbreak? What can we do to prepare?

Study charts developmental map of inner ear sound sensor in mice

Friday May 29th, 2020 07:06:47 PM
A team of researchers has generated a developmental map of a key sound-sensing structure in the mouse inner ear. Scientists analyzed data from 30,000 cells from mouse cochlea, the snail-shaped structure of the inner ear. The results provide insights into the genetic programs that drive the formation of cells important for detecting sounds and the underlying causes for some forms of inner ear hearing loss.

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