Calendar

For information about attending a Salisbury Cafe Scientifique event, see the Attending an Event section; there is also more general information in the Frequently Asked Questions section and help on making the most of this calendar in the Calendar Help section. If you fancy a night of science outside but close to Salisbury, there is also this filtered list of nearby events.

Nov
15
Fri
2019
The Unified Transform, Medical Imaging, Asymptotics of the Riemann Zeta Function: Part I – Thanasis Fokas (University of Cambridge)
Nov 15 @ 11:00 am – 12:00 pm

Employing techniques of complex analysis, three different problems will be discussed: (i) Initial-boundary value problems via the unified
transform (also known as the Fokas method,www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fokas_method)[1]. (ii) The evaluation of the large t-asymptotics to all orders of the Riemann zeta function[2], and the introduction of a new approach to the Lindelöf Hypothesis[3]. (iii) A novel analytical algorithm for the medical technique of SPECT and its numerical implementation [4].

[1] J. Lenells and A. S. Fokas. The Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation
with t-Periodic Data: I. Exact Results, Proc. R. Soc. A 471, 20140925
(2015).
J. Lenells and A. S. Fokas, The Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with
t-Periodic Data: II. Perturbative Results, Proc. R. Soc. A 471,
20140926 (2015).
[2] A.S. Fokas and J. Lenells, On the Asymptotics to All Orders of the
Riemann Zeta Function and of a Two-Parameter Generalization of the
Riemann Zeta Function, Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. (to appear).
[3] A.S. Fokas, A Novel Approach to the Lindelof Hypothesis,
Transactions of Mathematics and its Applications, 3(1), tnz006 (2019).
[4]N.E. Protonotarios, A.S. Fokas, K. Kostarelos and G.A. Kastis, The Attenuated Spline
Reconstruction Technique for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, J. R. Soc.
Interface 15, 20180509 (2018).

Dendritic Cell Migration at Various Scales – Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil Institut Curie, Paris, France
Nov 15 @ 1:15 pm – 1:55 pm

Abstract not available

The Unified Transform, Medical Imaging, Asymptotics of the Riemann Zeta Function: Part II – Thanasis Fokas (University of Cambridge)
Nov 15 @ 2:00 pm – 3:00 pm

Employing techniques of complex analysis, three different problems will be discussed: (i) Initial-boundary value problems via the unified
transform (also known as the Fokas method,www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fokas_method)[1]. (ii) The evaluation of the large t-asymptotics to all orders of the Riemann zeta function[2], and the introduction of a new approach to the Lindelöf Hypothesis[3]. (iii) A novel analytical algorithm for the medical technique of SPECT and its numerical implementation [4].

[1] J. Lenells and A. S. Fokas. The Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation
with t-Periodic Data: I. Exact Results, Proc. R. Soc. A 471, 20140925
(2015).
J. Lenells and A. S. Fokas, The Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with
t-Periodic Data: II. Perturbative Results, Proc. R. Soc. A 471,
20140926 (2015).
[2] A.S. Fokas and J. Lenells, On the Asymptotics to All Orders of the
Riemann Zeta Function and of a Two-Parameter Generalization of the
Riemann Zeta Function, Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. (to appear).
[3] A.S. Fokas, A Novel Approach to the Lindelof Hypothesis,
Transactions of Mathematics and its Applications, 3(1), tnz006 (2019).
[4]N.E. Protonotarios, A.S. Fokas, K. Kostarelos and G.A. Kastis, The Attenuated Spline
Reconstruction Technique for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, J. R. Soc.
Interface 15, 20180509 (2018).

Understanding the chemistry of ageing and disease in the extracellular matrix – Prof Melinda J Duer, Professor of Biological and Biomedical Chemistry, Cambridge
Nov 15 @ 2:00 pm – 3:00 pm

Abstract not available

Research and development of new vibro-acoustic methods in the commerical software wave6 – Dr David Hawes, DS Acoustics SIMULIA
Nov 15 @ 4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

Abstract not available

Scaling laws in blood platelets cytoskeleton – Francois Nedelec, University of Cambridge
Nov 15 @ 4:00 pm – 5:00 pm

Abstract not available

A design analysis framework for base-isolated buildings against ground-borne vibration – Giuseppe Sanitate, CUED
Nov 15 @ 4:30 pm – 5:00 pm

Abstract not available

The spatial and temporal dynamics of attention: insights from direct access to the attentional spotlight – Professor Suliann Ben Hamed, French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS)
Nov 15 @ 4:30 pm – 6:00 pm

Recent accumulating evidence challenges the traditional view of attention as a continuously active spotlight over which we have direct voluntary control, suggesting instead a rhythmic operation. However, the precise mechanism through which this rhythmic exploration of space is subserved remains unknown. Recent work proposes that specific inter-areal synchronization mechanisms in the theta range play an important role in this respect. I will present monkey electrophysiological data reconciling these two views. I will apply machine learning methods to reconstruct, at high spatial and temporal resolution, the spatial attentional spotlight from monkey prefrontal neuronal activity. I will first describe behavioral and neuronal evidence for distinct spatial filtering mechanisms, the attentional spotlight serving to filter in task relevant information while at the same time filtering out task irrelevant information. I will then provide evidence for rhythmic spatial attention exploration by this prefrontal attentional spotlight in the alpha (7-12Hz) frequency range. I will discuss this rhythmic exploration of space both from the perspective of sensory encoding and behavioral trial outcome, when processing either task relevant or task irrelevant information. While these oscillations are task-independent, I will describe how their spatial unfoldment flexibly adjusts to the ongoing behavioral demands. I will conclude by bridging the gap between this alpha rhythmic exploration by the attentional spotlight and previous reports on a contribution of long-range theta oscillations in attentional exploration and I will propose a novel integrated account of a dynamic attentional spotlight.

Suliann Ben Hamed has an initial training in mathematics, physics and biology. She is alumini of the Ecole Normale Supérieure of Paris. In 1999, she defended a PhD in neurosciences from the University Pierre et Marie Curie. Her PhD was performed at the Collègue de France, in the Laboratory of Neurophysiology of Action and Perception, directed by Alain Berthoz, from 1996 to 1999, and consisted in the characterization of the visual and oculomotor parietal functions in the non-human primate. She then completed a first post-doctoral training in Italy, at the University of Medicine of Parma, in neuroanatomy, then a second post-doctoral training at the University of Rochester, USA, in computational neurosciences.
In 2002, she was recruited at the CNRS and joined the Institute of Cognitive Sciences (Lyon), created and directed at the time by Marc Jeannerod. She is now a CNRS research director, since 2014. She is heading the lab of Cognition and action, and she combines her research skills to set up a lab associating comparative electrophysiology and functional imaging studies in humans and non-human primates, to question the neural bases of attention, perception and multisensory space representations in relation with actions. In 2015, she was awarded a consolidator ERC on attention-based brain machine interfaces to enhance and restore cognition.

Prevention of mental illness in the adolescent years – Professor Ian Goodyer, OBE,MD, FRCPsych, FMedSci, Professor of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Cambridge @ Wolfson College
Nov 15 @ 6:00 pm – 7:10 pm

The adolescent years are associated with the highest incident risk rate of major mental illnesses over the lifecourse. Approximately 70%-80% of all mental illnesses will begin their natural history before 25 years of age. Within the UK 21% (14 million) of the population are under 18 years and around 1.25 million will have some form of mental health problem: but they will vary from mild (many) to highly severe (some). Approximately 500,000 however will have been clinically depressed before their 21st birthday of whom one third will experience recurrent mental illness into adult life. Productivity losses in adult life are 23 times higher than costs to NHS. Sickness costs (‘absenteeism’) in the UK economy are approximately £8.4bn annually. Furthermore, there are an estimated £15.1bn lost in reduced productivity at workplace (‘presenteeism’). These are the background factors that indicate the pressing needs for a public mental health policy that puts prevention at the heart of its programme. This lecture outlines the types of prevention programmes (primordial, primary, secondary and tertiary) currently being actively pursued in the UK and elsewhere to reduce incident onset, recurrence and chronicity of mental illnesses respectively that can emerge and persist through into adult life.

This event is jointly organised by the Wolfson College Science Society and the Wolfson College Society of Emeritus Fellows.

Nov
18
Mon
2019
Extracting Universal Representations of Cognition from fMRI mega-analyses – Bertrand Thirion, Neurospin, INRIA
Nov 18 @ 12:30 pm – 1:30 pm

To map the neural substrate of mental function, cognitive neuroimaging relies on controlled psychological manipulations that engage brain systems associated with specific cognitive processes. In order to build comprehensive atlases of cognitive function in the brain, it must assemble maps for many different cognitive processes, which often evoke overlapping patterns of activation. Such data aggregation faces contrasting goals: on the one hand finding correspondences across vastly different cognitive experiments, while on the other hand precisely describing the function of any given brain region.

In this talk I will present two analysis frameworks that tackle these difficulties and thereby enable the generation of brain atlases for cognitive function. The first one uses deep-learning techniques to extract representations—task-optimized networks—that form a set of basis cognitive dimensions relevant to the psychological manipulations. This approach does not assume any prior knowledge of the commonalities shared by the studies in the corpus; those are inferred during model training.

The second one leverages ontologies of cognitive concepts and multi-label brain decoding to map the neural substrate of these concepts. Crucially, it can accurately decode the cognitive concepts recruited in new tasks. These results demonstrate that aggregating independent task-fMRI studies can provide a more precise global atlas of selective associations between brain and cognition.

‘We the tormentors, the destroyers’: death, emotions and gender in entomology – Joanne Green (Department of History and Philosophy of Science)
Nov 18 @ 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

This paper explores a female entomologist’s feelings towards the insects she collected during the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Entomology, ostensibly an exact and objective science, was in actuality filled with emotions, such as the aesthetic joy derived from the beauty and diversity of insects, and the excitement and heightened emotions of the hunt. This paper will place a special focus on the gendered aspects of the relationship between death and natural history, and how entomologists felt about killing insects and turning them into specimens, by focusing on the lepidopterist Margaret Fountaine. Fountaine’s entire life revolved around entomology and her collection, but she was also deeply conflicted, and oscillated between the joy of the hunt and the beauty of her captures, and pity and guilt over killing the insects. In her diary she habitually anthropomorphised butterflies and portrayed them as having feelings, while she herself sometimes felt as a murderer for killing them. However, these emotions were repressed in her scientific writing, illustrating one facet of the gendering of emotions among entomologists.

What sets the heat content of Southern Ocean mode water formation regions? – Emma Boland, British Antarctic Survey
Nov 18 @ 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

Abstract not available

Emotion and memory – Deborah Talmi
Nov 18 @ 2:00 pm – 3:30 pm

Abstract not available

Simplified models for long-lived particles and reinterpretation of LHC searches – Giovanna Cottin (FONDECYT Chile)
Nov 18 @ 3:00 pm – 4:00 pm

I will comment on the current state of long-lived particle (LLP) searches at the LHC. I will focus on the development of a signature-based approach to survey classes of models that can give rise to these beyond the Standard Model states. I will also comment on the difficulties in reinterpreting LLP search results from the LHC to different models, and provide some examples.

Making bonds by breaking bonds: An unconventional approach to making molecules – Professor Jun Yamaguchi, Waseda University
Nov 18 @ 4:00 pm – 5:00 pm

Abstract not available

In search of the molecules of memory – ANNUAL LECTURE – Roger Nicoll, University of California San Francisco
Nov 18 @ 4:30 pm – 6:00 pm

I will begin by introducing the problem of memory storage in the face of molecular turnover. I will then introduce long-term potentiation (LTP) and the role of calcium/CaMKII in this phenomenon. I will show that calcium and CaMKII are both necessary and sufficient for the induction of LTP. Much of the talk will focus on CaMKII and the maintenance of LTP (memory), which remains most contentious. Physiological evidence will be presented indicating that CaMKII fulfills most of the criteria necessary for its role in information storage.

Nov
19
Tue
2019
Tracking trade in underground symbioses – Toby Kiers (VU Amsterdam)
Nov 19 @ 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm

Abstract not available

Black hole interiors and modular inclusions – Ro Jefferson (Albert Einstein Institute, Golm) @ MR11
Nov 19 @ 4:00 pm – 5:00 pm

Abstract not available

Computational Neuroscience Journal Club – Yul Kang (University of Cambridge)
Nov 19 @ 4:00 pm – 5:00 pm

We will discuss: Environmental deformations dynamically shift the grid cell spatial metric, Keinath, Alexandra T, Epstein, Russell A, Balasubramanian Vijay, eLife, Vol. 7, (2018). doi:10.7554/eLife.38169.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.38169.001

TBC – Davide Napoletano @ Ryle Seminar Room (Rutherford 930)
Nov 19 @ 4:00 pm – 5:00 pm

Abstract not available

Learning medicine by the book: reading and writing surgical manuals in early modern London – Elaine Leong (University College London)
Nov 19 @ 5:00 pm – 6:30 pm

Abstract not available

Is Obesity a Choice? – Dr Giles Yeo, MRC Metabolic Diseases Unit, University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Labs, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
Nov 19 @ 6:00 pm – 7:30 pm

It is clear that the cause of obesity is a result of eating more than you burn. It is physics. What is more complex to answer is why some people eat more than others? Differences in our genetic make-up mean some of us are slightly more hungry all the time and so eat more than others. In contrast to the prevailing view, obesity is not a choice. People who are obese are not bad or lazy; rather, they are fighting their biology. Dr Giles Yeo is a Principal Research Associate at the Metabolic Research Labs and Director of Genomics/Transcriptomics at the MRC Metabolic Diseases Unit, University of Cambridge. He is also President of the British Society for Neuroendocrinology. In addition to scientific research, Dr Yeo is very active in media and communication. He presents science documentaries for the BBC, including _‘Horizon’_ and _‘Trust Me I’m a Doctor’_. His first book _‘Gene Eating: The Science of Obesity & the Truth About Diets’_ was published in December 2018. In recognition of his ability to communicate topical subjects in genetics research to the public, the Genetics Society, in its centenary year, has awarded Giles the 2019 JBS Haldane Lecture.

Nov
20
Wed
2019
Emergence of life-like properties in coacervate droplets – Evan Spruijt, Radboud University, the Netherlands
Nov 20 @ 10:30 am – 11:30 am

Being able to organize the complex biomolecular chemistry that takes place in cells in space and time is essential for life. Liquid-liquid phase separation has emerged as an important biological organizing principle that can result in the formation of dynamic membraneless compartments, also known as coacervate droplets. By studying model coacervate droplets in vitro, we are able to probe how their unique chemical microenvironment can affect reactivity, self-assembly, phase behaviour and potentially aggregation of biomolecules. Here, we focus on how mixtures of coacervates will typically lead to hierarchically organized multiphase compartments, and how the enhanced assembly of proteins such FtsZ into filaments inside these compartments gives rise to spontaneous elongation and splitting upon supply of energy. These insights are not only relevant to better understand living cells in health and disease, but also to guide efforts to build a functional synthetic cell.

Visualizing Landau Orbits, Quantum Hall Nematics, and Topological Edge Modes – Prof. Ali Yazdani, Princeton University
Nov 20 @ 11:15 am – 12:15 pm

Abstract not available

First-principles Investigation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Batteries (ASSBs) – Bora Karasulu, TCM
Nov 20 @ 11:30 am – 12:30 pm

Abstract not available

When the mind lingers – how sensory history impacts working memory – Dr Athena Akrami (University College London)
Nov 20 @ 12:30 pm – 1:30 pm

Abstract not available

Actual causation – Enno Fischer (Leibniz Universität Hannover)
Nov 20 @ 1:00 pm – 2:30 pm

Abstract not available

TBC – Dr Marketa Kaucka Petersen, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
Nov 20 @ 1:00 pm – 2:00 pm
System-bath quantum dynamics in chemical physics – Professor Peter Saalfrank, University of Potsdam
Nov 20 @ 2:15 pm – 3:15 pm

In non-equilibrium quantum dynamics arising in chemcial physics, often an atom, a molecule, or electrons (the “system”) is / are embedded in an environment (or “bath”), which gives rise to energy and phase relaxation. This affects the spectroscopic response of the system, its reactivity, and its dynamics in general.
In this talk I will mostly consider the special case of atoms or molecules in contact with solid surfaces, which play a role in surface spectroscopy and surface photochemistry. Here we focus on fundamental aspects of energy and phase relaxation by adsorbate-phonon (for all surfaces) and / or adsorbate-electron / hole pair coupling (for metal surfaces). A “system plus bath” approach to multidimensional quantum dynamics will be followed, treated either by a multidimensional time- dependent Schrödinger equation (using, for example, the Multi Configurational Time Dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method or an “exactly” solvable, so called Bixon-Jortner model), or by a re- duced description in which an open-system Liouville von Neumann is solved instead. Issues of Markovianity, finite temperature effects, spectroscopy, and optical controllability of / in open sys- tems will be addressed. Besides model problems, various concrete examples of energy and phase relaxation of adsorbed or scattering species at surfaces will be considered, but also spectroscopy in molecular crystals, and, if time permits, laser-driven electron dynamics in condensed phases.

Low Self-Esteem Predicts Out-group Derogation via Collective Narcissism, but this Relationship Is Obscured by In-group Satisfaction – Agnieszka Golec de Zavala, Goldsmith, University of London
Nov 20 @ 3:00 pm – 4:00 pm

According to social identity theory, low self-esteem motivates group members to derogate out-groups, thus achieving positive in-group distinctiveness and boosting self-esteem. According to the Frankfurt School and status politics theorists, low self-esteem motivates collective narcissism (i.e., resentment for insufficient external recognition of the in-group’s importance), which predicts out-group derogation. Empirical support for these propositions has been weak. We revisit them addressing whether (1) low self-esteem predicts out-group derogation via collective narcissism, and (2) this indirect relationship is only observed after partialling out the positive overlap between collective narcissism and in-group satisfaction (i.e., belief that the in-group is of high value and a reason to be proud). Results based on cross-sectional (Study 1, N = 427) and longitudinal (Study 2, N = 853) designs indicated that self-esteem is uniquely, negatively linked to collective narcissism and uniquely, positively linked to in-group satisfaction. Results based on cross-sectional (Study 3, N = 506; Study 4, N = 1059; Study 5, N = 471), longitudinal (Study 6, N = 410), and experimental (Study 7, N = 253) designs corroborated these inferences. Further, they revealed that the positive overlap between collective narcissism and in-group satisfaction obscures the link between self-esteem and out-group derogation.

_Agnieszka Golec de Zavala is a Reader, Goldsmith, University of London and a Head of the PrejudiceLab (collectivenarcissism.com). She is a visiting professor at University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poznań, Poland and ISCTE-CIS, Lisbon, Portugal. She is a former Fulbright Scholar and a Marie Curie Fellow. Her research is driven by a question: What makes people prejudiced and what makes them fight in conflicts? She has developed research on the concept of collective narcissism – the belief that one’s own group is exceptional but not sufficiently recognized by others – that predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility, prejudice, revengefulness, political radicalisation and belief in conspiracy theories. In her recent research she examines motivational underpinnings of collective narcissism. She also examines how reactions to intergroup exclusion are moderated by collective narcissism. PrejudiceLab uses methods of neuroscience and physiology to assess the mechanisms underlying those reactions.._